An Introduction to Polynesian Anthropology
The Early Voyages…
The Early Voyages
The discoveries in Polynesia have been enumerated because of the first contacts with the native inhabitants. The published journals of the voyages thus contain first-hand information concerning the culture of the people. They vary according to the length of contact and the amount of attention which the writers of the journals paid to recording the details of their contact with the natives. In the Tuamotus and other islands where anchorage was impossible or weather conditions were bad, ethnological information may be absent or small. No matter how little the information, however, it is valuable in filling in the picture of native culture before it underwent change from later, more frequent, or prolonged, European contact. Of all the early navigators who tried to record the details of their association with the Polynesians, Captain James Cook is easily the most outstanding.
The journals of the early voyagers who visited the islands after their discovery are sometimes more valuable than those of the discoverers for reason of a longer stay or a more careful observance of the manners and customs of the people. Thus, Wilson when he discovered the Gambier (Mangareva) Islands did not land, and his observations were of necessity confined to describing a group of people he saw on an islet on the outer reef as the ship passed by. Beechey, who landed on the various islands some 28 years later, provided the first real picture of the culture of the people. Roggeveen, who discovered the Manua Islands of eastern Samoa in 1722, made his observations on the people through a telescope. There is a great difference between what might be termed telescopic information and contact information, yet telescopic information may be better than none. However, valuable as the early journals may be, there is always the possibility of personal errors and exaggerations on the part of the observers.page 66
The rate of change in native culture due to contact with western civilization depended not so much on the date of first contact, but upon whether that contact became continuous through the establishment of white settlement. The various phases of native culture were also affected differently according to the reaction of the people and the amount of pressure brought to bear upon them from different directions. For instance, it was obvious to the natives that iron was vastly superior to stone, but they could not all abandon their stone implements until the supply of iron implements was assured. The change in religion after an initial period of doubt as to its advisability was rapid, because missionary settlement became permanent and their attack was sustained and continuous. Other elements in native culture, such as technical processes in building houses and canoes and social organization, changed much more slowly. Thus, the Wilkes Expedition in 1838-1842 was able to record an astonishing amount of valuable information. The changes recorded in chronological sequence of voyages form a record of the process of acculturation in the different island groups and have an important bearing on the present and the future.
The following list of voyages is arranged chronologically and has been brought down to about the middle of the nineteenth century. The islands visited are named in the notes to the work quoted, but some have been omitted owing to lack of useful information concerning them. Later journals may be useful in indicating further acculturation changes, but aside from that, they are usually a repetition of what has been gained from earlier informants. Some voyages have been described by more than one author, and their works are included as they contain different details from the official account.
Chronological List of Early Voyagers
- 1595-1596, Mendaña, Alvaro de, Narrative of the second voyage of … Alvaro de Mendaña, by the Chief Pilot Pedro Fernandez de Quiros: Hakluyt Soc, new ser., vol. 14, pp. 1-157, 1904: The voyages of Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, 1595-1606, vol. 1.
The Zaragoza account. Ships: San Jeronimo, Santa Isabel, San Felipe, and Santa Catalina. Marquesas.
- 1605-1606, Quiros, Pedro Fernandez de, Narrative of the voyage of Pedro Fernandez de Quiros in 1606, for the discovery of the Austrial Regions: Hakluyt Soc, new ser., vols. 14, pp. 161-320, and 15, 1904: The voyages of Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, 1595-1606, vols. 1-2.
The Zaragoza account. Ships: San Pedro y San Pablo and San Pedro. Tuamotus, Swains Island.page 67
- 1615-1617, Le Maire, Jacob, and Schouten, William, Voyage to Magellanica, Polynesia and Australasia. In John Callender's Terra Australis cognita, vol. 2, pp. 217-269, Edinburgh, 1768.
Drawn up by Aris Claessen, translated into English in 1619. Found also in several other collections, as well as original editions. The Hakluyt Society issue ser. 2, vol. 18, pp. 169-232, 1906 lists the editions. Ships: Eendracht and Hoorn. Tuamotus, Tonga, Alofi, Futuna.
- 1642-1643, Tasman, Abel Janszoon, Journal of his discovery of Van Diemen's Land and New Zealand in 1642 with documents relating to his exploration of Australia in 1644 … facsimiles of the original manuscript … with an English translation … life and labors of Abel Janszoon Tasman, by J. E. Heeres …, Amsterdam, 1898.
Also two other modern editions: one in Dutch by Posthumus Meyjes, published at The Hague, 1919, and a translation by M. F. Vigeveno, published by the Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington, entitled "Abel Janszoon Tasman and the discovery of New Zealand." Ships: Heemskercq and Zeehaen. New Zealand, Tonga.
- 1721-1722, Roggeveen, Jacob, Dagverhaal der Ontdekkings-Reis … met den schepen der Arend, Thienhoven en de Afrikaanische Galei …, Dordt, 1728. Republished 1738 and 1758.
Extract from Mynheer Jacob Roggeveen's official log of his discovery and visit to Easter Island in 1722, by Bolton G. Corney; Hakluyt Soc., ser. 2, vol. 13, 1908. Easter Island, Tuamotus, Samoa.
- 1721-1722, Behrens, Carl Frederick, Histoire de l'Expédition de trois vaisseaux … aux Terres Australes … par Monsieur de B***, vols. 1-2, La Haye, 1739.
An account of Roggeveen's voyage; originally published in German. Easter Island, Tuamotus, Samoa.
- 1764-1766, Byron, John, A voyage round the world, in His Majesty's ship the Dolphin, … with an accurate account of seven islands lately discovered in the south seas, by an officer on board the said ship, London, 1767.
Tuamotus, Pukapuka (Danger Island).
- 1766-1768, Wallis, Samuel, An account of a voyage round the world … the Dolphin. In John Hawkesworth's, An account of the voyages … for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere …, vol. 1, pp. 363-522, London, 1773.
Tuamotus, Society Islands, Tonga, Uvea (Wallis).
- 1766-1769, Bougainville, Louis Antoine de, Voyage autour du monde, par la frégate du roi La Boudeuse, et sa flute L'Etoile, …, Paris, 1771.
An English edition, which appeared in London in 1772, was translated by John Reinhold Forster. Tuamotus, Society Islands, Samoa.page 68
- 1768-1771, Cook, James, first voyage.
Ship: Endeavor. Society Islands, Tuamotus, Rurutu, New Zealand.
a. A journal of a voyage round the world …, London, 1771. (The first printed account of Cook's first voyage; a compilation, the first half being a paraphrase of Parkinson's journal.) b. Cook, James, An account of a voyage round the world … In John Hawkesworth's, An account of the voyages … for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere …, vols. 2-3, London, 1773. c. Parkinson, Sydney, Journal of a voyage to the south seas, … London, 1773. d. Banks, Sir Joseph, Journal of the Right Hon. Sir Joseph Banks, during Captain Cook's first voyage. … Edited by Sir Joseph D.Hookar, London, 1896.
- 1769-1770, Surville, M. de,
See "Extrait du voyage de M. de Surville." In Crozet 1771-1772, pp. 251-290. New Zealand.
- 1770-1771, Gonzalez, Don Felipe, The voyage of Captain Don Felipe Gonzalez, in the ship … San Lorenzo, with the frigate Santa Rosalia … to Easter Island in 1770-1771, by Bolton G. Corney: Hakluyt Soc., ser. 2, vol. 13, 1908.
- 1771-1772, Crozet, , Nouveau voyage à la Mer du Sud, commencé sous les ordres de M. Marion (de Fresne) … achevé, après la mort de cet Officier, sous ceux de M. le Chevalier Duclesmeur … redigée d'après les plans et journaux de M. Crozet (by Alexis Marie de Rochon) …, Paris, 1783.
Includes extract of Surville's voyage. Also English translation: Crozet's voyage to Tasmania, New Zealand, the Ladrone Islands, and the Philippines … translated by H. L. Roth …, London, 1891. New Zealand.
- 1772-1775, Cook, James, second voyage.
Ships: Resolution and Adventure. New Zealand, Society Islands, Tonga, Marquesas, Tuamotus, Niue, Easter Island.
a. Cook, James, A voyage toward the South Pole, and round the world … Resolution and Adventure …, vols. 1-2 and atlas, London, 1777. b. Journal of the Resolution's voyage … also a journal of the Adventure's voyage … (usually attributed to John Marra), London, 1775. c. Forster, George, A voyage round the world … sloop Resolution, commanded by Captain James Cook …, vols. 1-2, London, 1777.page 69 d. Forster, John Reinhold, Observations made during a voyage round the world, on physical geography, natural history, and ethic philosophy … (Resolution), London, 1778. e A voyage round the world … by Captain James Cook … Resolution … Drawn up from authentic papers by an officer on board, London, 1781. f. Sparrman, Anders, Resa till Goda Hopps-Udden, sodra polkretsen och omkring jordkoltet …, pt. 1, Stockholm, 1783 (also translation into English, German, French, and Dutch); pt. 2, 1802-1818. (Part 2 is the volume concerning the south seas, subtitle is [translated] A voyage round the world with Capt. J. Cook and Mrs. [Messrs.] Forster. … No translation from the Swedish has been printed. Bishop Museum has manuscript translation by Alfred Métraux.)
- 1772-1776, Boenechea, Domingo, Gayanago, Thomas, de Langara, Cayetano, and Rodrigues, Maximo, The quest and occupation of Tahiti by the emissaries of Spain in 1772-1776. Translated and compiled by Bolton G. Corney, vols. 1-3: Hakluyt Society, ser. 2, vols. 32, 36, and 43, 1913, 1914, 1918.
Journals of the expeditions in the Aguila, and Spanish official papers. Society Islands, Tuamotus.
- 1776-1780, Cook, James, third voyage.
Ships: Discovery and Resolution. New Zealand, Tonga, Society Islands, Hawaii, Cook Islands, Tubuai.
a. Journal of Captain Cook's last voyage to the Pacific Ocean, on Discovery … faithfully narrated from the original manuscript (variously attributed to John Rickman, John Ledyard, and Jared Sparks), London, 1781. b. Zimmermann, Heinrich, Reise um die Welt mit Captain Cook, Mannheim, 1781. (Also translated into French: Dernier voyage du Capitaine Cook autour du monde … Berne, 1782, again in 1783; translated into English by U. Tewsley and published as Bulletin 2, Alexander Turnbull Library, 1926, entitled, Zimmermann's account of the third voyage …"; also translated by F. W. Howay, with comments on the important accounts of this voyage, as one of the Canadian Historical Studies, Toronto, 1930, entitled, "Zimmermann's Captain Cook…." c. Ellis, William, An authentic narrative of a voyage performed by Captain Cook and Captain Clerke … Resolution and Discovery …, vols.1-2, London, 1782. d. An authentic narrative of a voyage to the Pacific Ocean: performed by Captain Cook, and Captain Clerke … by an officer on board the Discovery (John Ledyard?), vols. 1-2, Philadelphia, 1783.page 70 e. Cook, James, A voyage to the Pacific Ocean … for making discoveries in the northern hemisphere … performed under the direction of Captains Cook, Clerke, and Gore, in … the Resolution and Discovery …, vols. 1-3 and atlas, London, 1784. (The official account.) f. Samwell, David, A narrative of the death of Captain James Cook … and observations respecting the introduction of the venereal disease into the Sandwich Islands … Discovery, London, 1786. (Hawaii only.) g. Webber, John [erroneously given as James], Views in the south seas, from drawings by the late James Webber … the Resolution …, London, 1808. (Illustrations in color, with brief text, taken from Cook's work, by an editor.)
- 1780-1781, Maurelle, Don Francisco Antonio, Narrative of an interesting voyage from Manila to Sainte Blaise … In Voyage of La Pérouse.
See entry under 1785-1788, both English and French editions; translated by the editor from the original Spanish manuscript. Ship: La Princessa. Tonga (Late and Vavau), Ellice Islands.
- 1785-1788, La Pérouse, Jean Francois de Galaup de, Voyage de La Pérouse autour du monde … redige par M. L. A. Milet-Mureau …, vols. 1-4 and atlas, Paris, 1797.
English translation, London, 1798. Ships: La Boussole and L' Astrolabe. Hawaii, Easter Island, Tonga, Samoa.
- 1785-1788, Portlock, Nathaniel, A voyage round the world; but more particularly to the northwest coast of America … in the King George and Queen Charlotte, Captains Portlock and Dixon, London, 1789.
- 1785-1788, Dixon, George, A voyage round the world; … in the King George and Queen Charlotte, Captains Portlock and Dixon, London, 1789.
- 1787-1789, Bligh, William, A voyage to the south sea, undertaken … for the purpose of conveying the bread-fruit tree to the West Indies … ship Bounty, including an account of the mutiny … and the subsequent voyage … Friendly Islands to Timor …, London, 1792.
Society Islands, Tonga.
- 1788-1789, Meares, John, Voyages made … from China to the northwest coast of America …, London, 1790.
Two voyages touched at Hawaii: Meares in the Felice, 1788; Douglas in the Iphigenia, accompanied by the North West America, in 1788-89. Hawaii.
- 1789, Mortimer, George, Observations and remarks made during a voyage to the islands of Teneriffe … Otaheite, Sandwich Islands … in the brig Mercury …, London, 1791.
Society Islands, Hawaii.page 71
- 1790-1791, Edwards, Edward, and Hamilton, George, Voyage of H.M.S. Pandora despatched to arrest the mutineers of the "Bounty" in the south seas …, London, 1915.
Society Islands, Tonga, Samoa, Tuamotus, Tokelau.
- 1790-1792, Marchand, Etienne, Voyage autour du monde … précédé d'une introduction historique … par C. P. Claret Fleurieu, vols. 1-4, Paris, 1796-1800.
English translation, London, 1801. Ship: Le Solide. Marquesas.
- 1791-1792, Broughton, W. R., Log book of the tender Chatham, manuscripts in British Museum, nos. 1742-1751, 1791-1795.
Broughton, commander of Vancouver's tender, discovered and described the Chatham Islands in 1791. Chatham Islands.
- 1791-1795, Vancouver, George, A voyage of discovery to the north Pacific Ocean and round the world … in the Discovery … and … Chatham, vols. 1-3 and atlas of charts, London, 1798.
Included is journal of Broughton, commander of the Chatham. Hawaii, Marquesas, Rapa, Society Islands.
- 1791-1795, Menzies, Archibald, Journal of Archibald Menzies kept during his three visits to the Sandwich or Hawaiian Islands … when acting as surgeon and naturalist on board H.M.S. Discovery (Captain George Vancouver).
Edited by W. F. Wilson and entitled "Hawaii nei 128 years ago", Honolulu, 1920. Hawaii.
- 1791-1793, Bligh, William, Captain Bligh's second voyage to the south sea, by Ida Lee, London, 1920.
Ships: Providence and Assistant. Society Islands, Cook Islands.
- 1791-1793, D'Entrecasteaux, Joseph Antoine Bruni, Voyage de Dentrecasteaux, envoyé à la recherche de La Pérouse …, edited by Elisabeth Paul Edouard de Rossel, vols. 1-2, Paris, 1808.
Ships: La Recherche and L'Esperance. New Zealand, Tonga.
- 1791-1793, Labillardière, Jacques Julien de, Rélation du voyage à la recherche de La Pérouse …, vols. 1-2 and atlas, Paris, An 8 (1800).
Labillardière was naturalist on the Recherche. English translation, vols. 1-2, London, 1802. New Zealand, Tonga.
- 1795-1798, Broughton, William Robert, A voyage of discovery to the north Pacific Ocean … sloop Providence, London, 1804.
Society Islands, Hawaii.page 72
- 1796-1798, Wilson, James, A missionary voyage to the south Pacific Ocean … ship Duff … compiled from journals of the officers and the missionaries … with a preliminary discourse on the geography and history of the south sea islands, and an appendix … of the natural and civil state of Otaheite …, London, 1799.
Society Islands, Tonga, Mangareva, Marquesas, Rotuma.
- 1800-1804, Turnbull, John, A voyage round the world … in which the author visited … the principal islands in the Pacific Ocean, 2d edition, London, 1813.
Ship Margaret. Society Islands, Tonga, Hawaii, Tuamotus.
- 1803-1806, Krusenstern, Adam Johann von, Reise um die Welt … auf dem Schiffen Nadeshda und Newa, vols. 1-3 and atlas, St. Petersburg, 1810-1812, atlas, 1814.
Atlas, folio, is rare, contains 4 plates for Polynesia, all Marquesan. Also English translation: Voyage round the world … Nadeshda and Neva …, vols. 1-2, London, 1813. Hawaii, Marquesas.
- 1803-1806, Lisiansky, Urey, A voyage round the world … in the ship Neva, London, 1814.
Krusenstern's voyage. Hawaii, Easter Island, Marquesas.
- 1803-1806, Langsdorff, George Heinrich von, Voyages and travels in various parts of the world …, vols. 1-2, London, 1813-1814.
Krusenstern's voyage. Ship: Nadeshda. Marquesas, Hawaii.
- 1806-1812, Campbell, Archibald, A voyage round the world … in which Japan, Kamschatka, the Aleutian Islands, and the Sandwich Islands were visited …, Edinburgh, 1816.
Ship: Thames Indiaman. Hawaii.
- 1811-1814, Franchère, Gabriel, Narrative of a voyage to the northwest coast of America … or the first American settlement on the Pacific. Translated and edited by J. V. Huntington, Redfield, 1854.
Translated preface to the French edition dated 1819. Hawaii.
- 1812-1814, Porter, David, A voyage in the south seas … with particular details of the Gallipagos (sic) and Washington Islands … Frigate Essex, London, 1823.
- 1813-1818, Corney, Peter, Voyages in the northern Pacific: narrative of several trading voyages … between the northwest coast of America, the Hawaiian Islands and China …, Honolulu, 1896.
Reprinted from The London Literary Gazette, 1821. Hawaii.page 73
- 1815-1818, Kotzebue, Otto von, Entdeckungs-Reise in der Süd-see und nach der Berings-strasse zur Erforschung einer nordöstlichen Durchfahrt … Schiffe Rurick …, vols. 1-3, Weimar, 1821.
Also translated into English: A voyage of discovery into the south sea and Beering's Straits, for the purpose of exploring a north-east passage … ship Rurick …, vols. 1-3, London, 1821; also abridgement, vols. 1-2, London, 1821. Kotzebue's first voyage. Hawaii, Easter Island.
- 1815-1818, Chamisso, Adelbert von, Reise um die Welt … brigg Rurik, Kapitain Otto von Kotzebue, vols. 1-2, Leipzig, 1836.
Kotzebue's first voyage. Hawaii, Easter Island.
- 1815-1818, Choris, Louis, Voyage pittoresque autour du monde … Paris, 1822.
Kotzebue's first voyage. Ship: Rurick. Bishop Museum copy has also a second title page dated 1820. Hawaii, Easter Island.
- 1816-1819, Roquefeuil, Camille de, A voyage round the world … in the ship Le Bordelais, London, 1823.
- 1817-1819, Golovnin, Vassili Mikhailovitch, Tour around the world, performed … on the sloop of war Kamchatka, St. Petersburg, 1822.
Translated title, original in Russian. Hawaiian section has been translated into English by Ella Embree, manuscript in libraries in Honolulu. Hawaii.
- 1817-1820, Freycinet, Louis Claude Desaulses de, Voyage autour du monde … sur les corvettes … L'Uranie et La Physicienne … Historique, vols. 1-2 and atlas, Paris, 1827-1839.
- 1817-1820, Arago, Jacques, Promenade autour du monde …, vols. 1-2 and atlas, Paris, 1822.
Artist with Freycinet on L'Uranie. Also translated into English: Narrative of a voyage round the world …, London, 1823. Another account, Paris, 1840, in vols. 1-2, entitled: Souvenirs d'un aveugle: voyage autour du monde …, Paris, 1838; again in 1840. Hawaii.
- 1822-1825, Duperrey, Louis Isadore, Voyage autour du monde … La Coquille … Partie historique and atlas, Paris, 1826.
Work not completed. Partie historique has no ethnological information, but atlas contains plates of Society Islands, New Zealand, Rotuma.
- 1822-1825, Lesson, René Primevère, Voyage autour du monde … La Coquille …, vols. 1-2, Paris, 1839.
Duperrey's voyage. Tuamotus, Society Islands, New Zealand, Rotuma.
- 1823-1826, Kotzebue, Otto von, Neue Reise um die Welt… Predpriyatie …, vols. 1-2, Weimar, St. Petersburg, 1830.
Kotzebue's second voyage. Also English translation: A new voyage round the world …, vols. 1-2, London, 1830. Tuamotus, Hawaii, Samoa, Society Islands.page 74
- 1824-1825, Byron, George Anson, Voyage of H.M.S. Blonde to the Sandwich Islands …, London, 1826.
Hawaii, Cook Islands (Mauke).
- 1825-1828, Beechey, Frederick William, Narrative of a voyage to the Pacific and Beering's Strait, to cooperate with the Polar expeditions … ship Blossom …, vols. 1-2, London, 1831.
Easter Island, Mangareva, Tuamotus, Society Islands, Hawaii, Pitcairn.
- 1826-1829, Boelen, J., Reize naar de Oost-en Westkust van Zuid-Amerika … Sandwich en Philippinsche Eilanden … Wilhelmina en Maria, vols. 1-3, Amsterdam, 1835-1836.
- 1826-1829, Dumont d'Urville, Jules Sébastian César, Voyage de la corvette L'Astrolabe … Histoire du voyage, vols. 1-5 and atlas, vols. 1-2, Paris, 1830-1833.
Dumont d'Urville's first voyage. New Zealand, Tonga.
- 1826-1829, Duhaut-Cilly, A., Voyage autour du monde, principalement à la Californie et aux Iles Sandwich …, vols. 1-2, Paris, 1834-1835.
Ship: Heros. Hawaii.
- 1827-1828, Dillon, Peter, Narrative and successful result of a voyage in the south seas … to ascertain the actual fate of La Perouse's expedition … accounts … of the south sea islanders, vols. 1-2, London, 1829.
Ship: Research. New Zealand, Tonga, Rotuma, Tikopia.
- 1828-1834, Moerenhout, J. A., Voyages aux iles du grand ocean, contenant des documens nouveaus sur la géographie physique et politique, la langue, la littérature, la réligion …, vols. 1-2, Paris, 1837.
A resume of three voyages. Tuamotus, Pitcairn, Easter Island, Rapa, Austral Islands, Mangareva, Society Islands.
- 1829-1830, Stewart, Charles S., A visit to the south seas, in the U. S. ship Vincennes …, vols. 1-2, New York, 1831.
Marquesas, Society Islands, Hawaii.
- 1830-1832, Meyen, F. J. F., Reise um die Erde … auf dem königlich preussischen see-handlungs-Schiffe Prinsess Louise …, vols. 1-2, Berlin, 1834-1835.
- 1832-1836, Coulter, John, Adventures in the Pacific … (Stratford), Dublin, 1845.
Marquesas, Society Islands.page 75
- 1833-1836, Bennett, Frederick Debell, Narrative of a whaling voyage round the globe …, vols. 1-2, London, 1840.
Ship: Tuscan. Society Islands, Hawaii, Marquesas.
- 1836-1839, Du Petit-Thouars, Abel Aubert, Voyage autour du monde sur la frégate La Venus … Rélation, vols. 1-4 (in two vols.), Atlas pittoresque, Paris, 1840-1845.
Hawaii, Easter Island, Society Islands, New Zealand, Marquesas.
- 1836-1842, Belcher, Sir Edward, Narrative of a voyage round the world … ship Sulphur …, vols. 1-2, London, 1843.
Hawaii, Marquesas, Society Islands, Cook Islands, Tuamotus, Tonga.
- 1837-1840, Dumont d'Urville, Jules Sébastian César, Voyage au Pôle Sud et dans l'Océanie sur les corvettes L'Astrolabe et La Zélée … Histoire du voyage, vols., 1-10 and atlas, Paris, 1841-1846.
Dumont d'Urville's second voyage. Mangareva, Marquesas, New Zealand, Samoa, Society Islands, Tonga, Tuamotus.
- 1838-1842, Wilkes, Charles, United States Exploring Expedition, commanded by Charles Wilkes, vols. 1-5: Narrative, by Charles Wilkes; vol. 6: Ethnography and philology, by Horatio Hale; vol. 9: The races of man and their geographical distribution, by Charles Pickering, Philadelphia, 1845-1848.
Ships: Peacock, Porpoise, Vincennes, Flying Fish; his other vessels did not reach Polynesia. Tuamotus, Society Islands, Samoa, New Zealand, Tonga, Tongareva, Tokelau, Ellice, Phoenix, Hawaii.
- 1849, Erskine, John Elphinstone, Journal of a cruise among the islands of the western Pacific … ship Havannah, London, 1853.
Niue, Samoa, Tonga.