Tuatara: Volume 18, Issue 2, July 1970
Botany of the Southern Zone — Exploration, 1847-1891
Botany of the Southern Zone
Inthe Half-Century following publication of the Flora Antarctica, botanical exploration in the southern zone remained an activity incidental to other scientific and practical endeavours. Observations of two transits of Venus enriched northern hemisphere herbaria. The change from sail to steam made the Straits of Magellan a safe and regular route for shipping and its shores were often visited by botanists passing through. Steam-power also allowed accurate positionings and soundings, and coincided with the rise of oceanography and its practical application to the new submarine cables. The young southern countries, Chile and the Argentine, began to look southwards and the New Zealand government began regular searches for sailors, shipwrecked on the southern islands that lay across the sea-route from Australia to Cape Horn. Spain, by now, had left the scene, and Russia looked elsewhere; but Britain, the United States and France continued their work, Sweden began, as a nation, a long and important association with the far south, and the young nations, Germany and Italy, were quick to show the flag. However, despite all this, and despite the brilliant reconnaissances of the British, French and Americans in 1839-40, the Antarctic Continent lay neglected by scientists throughout these fifty years. The great voyages were not yet over, as witness those of the Challenger and the Gazelle, but expeditions tended to concentrate on specific groups of islands, either in the Indian Ocean and New Zealand sectors, or on Tierra del Fuego, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia. These two broad groupings provide a convenient but somewhat arbitrary division of the history of botanical exploration in this period.
The Indian Ocean And New Zealand Sectors
R. E. Bolton: Auckland Islands, 1850.
The first botanical collector in the Auckland Islands after the Americans, French and British in 1840 was Colonel R. E. Bolton, a correspondent of J. D. Hooker and commander of the Royal page 50 Engineers in New Zealand. In early and late 1850 Bolton visited the Enderby settlement at Ross Harbour. The first visit was recorded as follows in an abstract of a letter from Mr. Enderby. ‘Between the date of his arrival and that of his letter (February 21) he made a series of boat and land excursions, some by himself, others in the company of the Hon. Captain Erskine, of her Majesty's ship Havannah, and Captain Oliver, of her Majesty's ship Fly, as well as the Hon. Captain Stewart, R.N., Colonel Bolton, Royal Engineers, who were passengers, and the officers and professional gentlemen of these ships, which arrived there on February 11.’ (Australian and New Zealand Gazette, 1850; McLaren, 1948). McLaren also records that the Governor, Sir George Grey on H.M.S. Fly was at the Enderby settlement from November 29 until December 5. That Bolton accompanied Grey may be seen from entries in C. O. Torlesse's diary (Maling, 1958) recording the arrival of the Fly at Lyttleton from the Auckland Islands on December 13, 1850 and mentioning that both Grey and Bolton were aboard.
Nineteen species collected by Bolton are recorded in the Handbook of the New Zealand Flora, Part 1 (J. D. Hooker, 1864). Of these, Tmesipteris tannensis, Hymenophyllum flabellatum, Lagenophora petiolata, Corysanthes macrantha, and C. rivularis were new records; while Leptopteris superba, Metrosideros scandens and Lepidium oleraceum have never been recorded since and may have been accidentally mixed with the Auckland Island gatherings. In Hooker's “Handbook” the plants of Auckland, Campbell and Macquarie Islands were treated for the first time as part of a greater New Zealand flora. The species recorded from the Auckland Islands were those in the Flora Antarctica with the addition of Bolton's collections and of records published by the French and Americans after the Flora Antarctica appeared. The records for Campbell and Macquarie Island are those in the Flora Antarctica. But for both Auckland and Campbell Islands there are also some new records without comment which were not in the Flora Antarctica and which cannot be related to any collector.
J. H. Baker: Auckland Islands, 1865, and H. Armstrong:
Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes and Bounty Islands, 1868.
Botanists did not revisit the New Zealand subantarctic islands until 1874, but in the meantime the Provincial Government of Southland sent two expeditions to make general explorations and to search for ship-wrecked sailors. In October - November, 1865, J. H. Baker, Chief Surveyor, and J. B. Greig, Harbourmaster, visited the Auckland Islands in the steamer Southland and reported on them (Baker and Greig, 1865); and in 1868, Henry Armstrong, a member of the Provincial Council, reported on his visit to the Auckland, Campbell. Antipodes and Bounty Islands, in January - March of that page 51 year in the brig Amherst. Extracts from the reports were given by Hector (1870) when describing Armstrong's rock collections, but the original reports and Armstrong's later and more popular account (1889) are worth consulting for hints on the state of the vegetation at that time.
H. N. Moseley: Marion, Kerguelen, Heard, southern Chile, Falklands, 1872-1876.
When H.M.S. Challenger left Portsmouth on 21 December, 1872, on a voyage that was to last 3 years 155 days, it was described by one of the engineers W. J. J. Spry (1878) as ‘the most important surveying expedition which had ever sailed from any country’. Indeed the object of the voyage was simple and grand enough. The Circumnavigation Committee of the Royal Society had directed the expedition ‘to investigate the physical and biological conditions of the great Ocean basins’ (Tizard et al, 1885). One of the factors that had focused attention on this little-known field was the invention of ocean-telegraphy and one of the inventions that now made accurate deep-sea soundings possible was steam power.
The Challenger was commanded by Captain G. S. Nares (later by Captain F. T. Thomson) and Professor C. Wyville Thomson, Regius Professor of Natural History at the University of Edinburgh, led the team of civilian scientists. This comprised J. J. Wild (artist and secretary), J. Y. Buchanan (chemist and physicist), and three naturalists — John Murray, R. von Willemoes Suhm, and Henry Nottidge Moseley (1844-1891). Narratives were written by Spry (1878) and Moseley (1879, 1892) but neither can replace the two massive official volumes by Tizard (navigating officer), Moseley, Buchanan and Murray (1885). Thomson (1877) completed before his death a partial narrative covering the Atlantic Ocean which dealt with the first and last periods of the voyage.
The naturalists were in fact zoologists, but Moseley (1879) wrote Since it was not considered expedient to attach a Botanist to the Challenger Expedition, because the special work of the ship lay in deep-sea exploration, I undertook the collection of plants during the voyage. I received instruction at Kew before starting.’ The official botanical instructions (Tizard et al, 1885) noted that ‘Especial stress must, however, be laid upon the necessity of obtaining information about the vegetation of oceanic islands. These are, in many cases, the last positions held by floras of great antiquity; and, as in the case of St Helena, they are liable to speedily become exterminated, and therefore to pass into irremediable oblivion when the islands become occupied.’
On 17 December 1873, after a year in the Atlantic, the Challenger left Capetown to explore the Prince Edward Islands and then the Crozets. The botanical instructions emphasised that ‘two spots more page 52 interesting for the exploration of their vegetation do not exist on the face of the globe. Every effort should be made to make a complete collectionrsquo;. But although a successful landing of some eight hours was made on Marion Island on 26 December, the projected landing on Prince Edward Island next day was abandoned because of unfavourable weather; and although late on 2 January Challenger passed close to Possession Island in the Crozet group, as with Erebus and Terror thirty-four years before, a landing was not possible.
Moseley's collections were the first made on Marion Island and in a letter to J. D. Hooker he gave a preliminary list of the higher plants (Mosley, 1874). The determinations by Oliver (1874) differ slightly from those of Moseley and number two lycopods, four ferns, nine flowering plants and an undetermined grass. Also gathered were 24 mosses and five liverworts (Mitten, 1876a), two fungi (Berkeley, 1876a), five lichens (Crombie, 1877b), seven fresh-water diatoms (O'Meara, 1876) and nine seaweeds (Dickie, 1876a). Moseley climbed to about 1500 feet on the island and made useful preliminary notes on vegetation (1877) which were reprinted in variant forms (Moseley, 1879, 1892, Hemsley, 1885, Tizard et al, 1885) each slightly less complete than the original. A list of the diatoms collected between Marion and Prince Edward Island is given in Murray (1895).
The Challenger arrived at Christmas Harbour, Kerguelen Island at 8.45 a.m. on 7 January, 1874 (not 8.30 p.m. as recorded by Moseley)* and spent 26 days at the island. Only the north and east coasts were visited and the movements were as follows (Fig. 1): 8, left Christmas Harbour at 5 a.m. for Betsy Cove; 9-15, surveying at Betsy Cove; 16-17, a sweep north-east of the island; 18, landings on Prince of Wales Foreland and Balfour Rock before anchoring in Island Harbour, Royal Sound; 19-20, surveying in Royal Sound; 21, Royal Sound south to Cape George and return to Greenland Harbour; 22-24, Greenland Harbour to Cascade Reach; 25, to Betsy Cove; 26, to Hopeful Harbour; 27, to Fuller Harbour; 28, surveying at Fuller Harbour; 29, to Christmas Harbour through the Aldrich Channel; 30-31 at Christmas Harbour, where instructions were left for the British Transit of Venus expedition.
Moseley wrote that he was sorry to leave Kerguelen and in fact as the Challenger left Christmas Harbour on the afternoon of 31 January he was missed on board, ‘and on searching the shore with glasses Moseley was seen resting quietly under a rock, his handkerchief tied to a stick to show his whereabouts, but not in the least discomposed by the thought of being left behind in so desolate a spot.’ page 54 (Memoir in Moseley, 1892). The expedition returned along the north and east coasts of Kerguelen and then struck south for Heard Island, making a collection of diatoms in mid-ocean (O'Meara, 1876). McDonald Island was sighted on 6 February, 1874, and the Challenger moved east to Heard (Yong) Island anchoring at 3.40 p.m. near the northern extremity in Corinthian Bay. A landing was immediately made but only one boat with Nares, Buchanan and Moseley got ashore. In the next three hours Moseley made the first collections from Heard Island comprising five flowering plants (Oliver, 1874), four mosses (Mitten, 1876a), and eight seaweeds (Dickie, 1876c). Notes on the vegetation may be found in Moseley's book and these were reprinted in Hemsley (1885) and in the official narrative (1885).
On 7 February bad weather prevented a second landing on Heard Island and the Challenger headed south near the longitude explored by Cook. On 16 February the expedition reached ten miles beyond the Antarctic Circle in longitude 78° 22′E before turning north for Melbourne. After visiting Sydney and Wellington the Challenger spent some eighteen months in the Pacific Ocean and we take up our story again with the expedition heading southwards from Valparaiso to enter the maze of channels on the coast of southern Chile. On 31 December, 1875, Challenger anchored in Port Otway on the inner side of Tres Montes peninsula. A party landed for a short time, and at 5 a.m. next morning the ship sailed. This was a common pattern in the itinerary that follows, with departure soon after first light, anchoring in the late afternoon, and collecting on shore in the evening. 1 Jan., Port Otway to Hale Cove with an hour ashore at Penguin Island en route; 2, to Gray Harbour with a landing of three hours on Middle Island en route; 3, at Gray Harbour; 4, to Port Grappler (the steam pinnace was detached for this day but the landings are not given); 5, to Tom Bay, Madre de Dios Island; 6-7, at Tom Bay; 8, to Port Bueno; 9, at Port Bueno; 10, to Isthmus Bay; 11, to Port Churucca near the western entrance to the Straits of Magellan; 12, at Port Churucca; 13, eastwards in the Straits to Port Famine; 14, to Punta Arenas; 15-17, at Punta Arenas; 18, to Elizabeth Island; 19, at Elizabeth Island; 20, left for the Falkland Islands. Spry gives a very readable account of this part of the journey, whereas Moseley treats it only briefly and the official narrative concentrates more on nautical matters. The botanical instructions for this area were ‘Cryptograms are abundant, but very partially explored’, but the only published records that I know of are two lichens from Port Otway (Crombie, 1883) and a seaweed from Isthmus Bay (Dickie, 1877). On 22 January, 1876, the Challenger anchored in Port Stanley, in the Eastern Falklands, and other than a trip to Port Louis nearby on 1 February (Thomson, 1877, Spry 1878) the vessel remained here until the expedition left the island on 6 February. Moseley rode some sixty miles to Port Darwin to see some reported coal beds. His narrative which again was reprinted in the official account, contains little botany, page 55 and the only published collections appear to be the two seaweeds listed by Dickie (1877) from Port Louis.
The expedition returned to England in May, 1876, and nineteen years later Sir John Murray brought out the last of the scientific reports, a remarkable series filling fifty large Royal Quarto volumes. Two of these are on botany. The second volume contains a systematic account of the diatom collection by Castracane (1886), but unfortunately the information is not also presented on a geographical basis, and nor is it complete, as further lists determined by Thomas Comber are given in Murray's summary of results (1895). The genesis of the very important first volume (1885) was explained by its author as follows (Hemsley, 1883): ‘The best collections, so far as number and quality of the specimens are concerned, are those from Chile, Juan Fernandez, Japan, the Sandwich Islands, etc.; yet they contain little or nothing new to science, and by no means fully represent the vegetation of the several countries. There remain the collections made on the remote islets of the Atlantic and the Southern Oceans, which, with what was previously known, afford material for a practically complete flora of these isolated spots, so interesting to the student of the distribution of plants and animals. And it has been decided that this shall be the scope of the work.’ The introduction and the appendix deal with general principles of plant geography and methods of dispersal and will be discussed elsewhere; and the first part on the Bermudas and the third part on Juan Fernandez, South eastern Moluccas and Admiralty Islands are not our present concern. In the second part Hemsley deals with twelve island groups in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans and these include Marion Island, Possession Island in the Crozets, Kerguelen Island and Heard Island. He compiles useful lists of the species known to him from these islands in all major plant groups. The records used came from the Challenger collections, from earlier expeditions, and from the British and American Transit of Venus Expedition to Kerguelen in 1874-1875. Hemsley overlooked a preliminary report by Naumann (1876) of the German Transit of Venus Expedition to Kerguelen, but the main records were not available to him as they did not begin to appear until 1883.
Transit of Venus Expeditions: 1874-75.
The transit of Venus across the disc of the sun in 1761 had brought no expeditions to the far south, and in 1769 only the British, in sending Banks and Solander with Cook, had used such an expedition to advance our knowledge of the biology of the southern zone. In contrast, observations from the southern hemisphere played an important part in the transits of 1874 and 1882 and the biological sciences profited accordingly. Of the several expeditions to observe the transit of 9 December, 1874, we are concerned with the following five:page 56
Germany: Auckland Islands
France: Campbell Island
A German expedition to Heard Island was abandoned when bad weather prevented the Arcona from landing a party (Kurtz, 1875) and bad weather prevented an American party landing on the Crozets. An implication in the first volume of the Catalogue of the Library of the National Maritime Museum (1968, no. 696) that a British party under Lieutenant Corbet was on Heard Island, is incorrect.
J. H. Kidder: Kerguelen, 1874-75.
The U.S.S. Swatara (Captain Chandler) left New York on 8 June, 1874, to take American observers to five stations in the southern hemisphere (Kidder, 1875b). The first party, destined for the Crozets, could not be landed and the expedition went on to Kerguelen where the second party was put ashore on the north coast of Royal Sound on 10 September. The observation station was on ‘a plateau or terrace 130 feet above the level of the sea, and on the eastern side of a considerable bluff overlooking the bay’ (Kidder, 1875a). This was, in fact, near Molloy Point (Eaton, 1879) (Fig. 1). The Swatara left on 13 September to deliver observers to Hobart (Tasmania), Queenstown (New Zealand) and the Chatham Islands, but a reported intention to take the Crozet party to Campbell Island (Anon. 1874) was not carried out.
The Kerguelen party was led by Commander Ryan, one of two naval astronomers. They were assisted by Dr Jerome Henry Kidder (1842-1889) a naval surgeon who made natural history collections. There were also three photographers, a cook and a carpenter, and some stowaways from Capetown, later handed over to the British expedition. Kidder's gatherings appear to be all in the neighbourhood of Royal Sound with an ascent of Mount Crozier to the north (Kidder 1876), but to his disappointment the original programme was curtailed by the unexpected arrival on 9 December of the Monongahela to take the party home, and although astronomical work delayed departure until 11 January the naturalist still lost the second half of the summer.
On his return Kidder spent about a year at the Smithsonian Institute working on his collections. He published a general report on the natural history of Kerguelen which contained the weather records of the expedition (1875a). This was followed by two more detailed reports (1875b, 1876) of which the second deals with the plants. The flowering plants, ferns and lycopods were studied by Asa Gray (23 species) and the new records for Kerguelen were Ranunculus trullifolius, Grammitis australe, Polypodium vulgare, and page 57 Cystopteris fragilis. The mosses were studied by T. P. James (28 species) and the algae by W. G. Farlow (22 species). The lichen determinations by E. Tuckermann (18 species) were discussed critically by Crombie (1877a Appendix). The expedition specimens were deposited in the Smithsonian Institute, but Hooker (1881) notes a contribution to Kew by Asa Gray of 55 specimens from Kerguelen, doubtless duplicates from the American Transit of Venus collection. While Kidder was at the Smithsonian ‘elaborate plans’ were prepared ‘for an expedition to the Antarctic regions, under the auspices of the Institution, which was to have been in his charge. Circumstances, however, delayed the execution of this project, and it was finally abandoned’ (Rathbun, 1892).
Monongahela (1874) Comus (1880): Crozets.
Sealers visited and lived on the islands of the Southern Ocean long before the arrival of most scientific expeditions but the opportunity to use these men as collectors appears to have been taken on only two occasions. The first was at Macquarie Island and the second was at the Crozets when living plants of Pringlea antiscorbutica and Azorella selago were brought to Mr J. McGibbon, Superintendent of the Botanic Garden, Capetown, by the master of a vessel trading to the islands and were sent on to Kew (Hemsley, 1885). The plants are still in the herbarium but Dr. R. Melville informs me that P. antiscorbutica is labelled ‘Crozets Fr. Mr. McGibbon of Natal 12/67’. The second gatherings from the Crozets were made on 1 December, 1874, when a party from the Monongahela landed on Possession Island, on the way to Kerguelen to pick up the American Transit of Venus party. Five flowering plants, a fern and a moss were gathered (Kidder, 1876). Hemsley (1885) also records that Captain J. N. Best of H.M.S. Comus examined the Crozets in 1880 when searching for castaways. ‘He reported to the Secretary of the Admiralty, that the Kerguelen Cabbage (Pringlea) was abundant on Possession Island, and a plant called ‘red root,’ on which the pilot, who had spent some years in the islands, assured him human beings could not only exist but get fat. The plants he collected were fragments of two ferns: Lomaria alpina, and Asplenium obtusatum, which are in the Herbarium at Kew.’
A. E. Eaton: Kerguelen, 1874-75.
In 1874 the President and Council of the Royal Society successfully requested Treasury to attach naturalists to the British Transit of Venus Expeditions to Rodriguez and Kerguelen. A committee consisting of Sir Joseph Hooker, Professor T. H. Huxley and Mr. P. L. Sclater noted: ‘As regards Kerguelen's Land, this large island (100 by 50 miles) was last visited in 1840 by the Antarctic Expedition under Sir James Ross, in mid winter only, when it was found to contain page 58 a scanty Flora of flowering plants, some of which belong to entirely new types, and an extraordinary profusion of marine animals and plants of the greatest interest, many of them being representatives of North-temperate and Arctic forms of life. H.M.S. Challenger will no doubt visit Kerguelen's Land and collect largely; but it is evident that many years would be required to obtain even a fair representation of its marine products; and though we are not prepared to say that the scientific objects to be obtained by a naturalist's visit to Kerguelen's Land are of equal importance to those which Rodriguez will yield, we cannot but regard it as in every respect most desirable that the rare opportunity of sending a collector to Kerguelen's Land should not be lost’ (Stokes and Huxley, 1879). The naturalist chosen for Kerguelen was the Reverend Alfred Edwin Eaton (1844-1929) an entomologist with wide interests in natural history. ‘From an early age nearly all branches of Zoological science appear to have appealed to him, and in 1875 he accompanied the well-known Arctic explorer Mr. B. Leigh Smith, on a summer cruise to Spitsbergen on the steam yacht Diana, the outcome of which was a highly interesting series of observations on the birds and other forms of animal life met with during the voyage published shortly after his return to England in the ‘Zoologist’.’ (Anon. 1929). The observers were Fathers Perry and Sidgreaves, Lieutenants Coke and Goodridge, Mr. Smith and Lieutenant Cyril Corbet (Corbet, 1875). Corbet was to be in charge of the observatory at Heard Island, but this project was abandoned. He supervised the second observatory near Swains Haulover and wrote an entertaining, often candid account of the expedition, printed for private circulation. At Capetown he organised the collection of rabbits for liberation on Kerguelen.
H.M.S.S. Volage (Captain Fairfax) and Supply left Simon's Bay, Capetown, on 18 September, 1874, and by 11 October were both at the rendezvous in Three Island Harbour, Royal Sound, where Eaton collected on Cat Island in the afternoon. Here it was found that the American Expedition had occupied the site recommended by the Challenger (Anon. 1875) and next day the British moved further west, anchoring on 13 October in Observatory Bay at the head of the Sound (Fig. 1). Eaton (1879) gives the following localities for his collections: ‘Observatory Bay and adjoining district, to a distance of five miles during most of October, November, December and February; isthmus at the head of Carpenter's Cove, January 4th-9th; Thumb Peak, December 7th noon till 10th morning; vicinage of second astronomical station and hills near Swain's Bay, January 15-30th.’ Captain Fairfax was of great help in this work, for ‘having invited Mr. Eaton to be his guest for three weeks, he conveyed him in his gig to almost every part of the bay that was accessible by boat in Kerguelen Island weather, and surrendered his cabins without reservation to the reception of buckets and specimens of all descriptions, excluding only seals and cetacea accommodated elsewhere.’ (Dickie, 1879). Corbet reported of the worthy naturalist, page 59 who at one stage ‘had been going about in nothing but a pair of drawers and a water-proof, barefooted, and no hat — he had lost it’, that ‘I never saw anything like Eaton's room (on shore) — so full of all sorts of birds, skins, insects, seaweeds etc. etc., with just two boards left spare, and a blanket, for his bed.’ In general ‘the collections represent the fauna and flora of the inland and sheltered portions of the island from altitudes of 500 or 600 feet above the sea down to the depth of about 10 fathoms along the coast, and are as a rule rather deficient in duplicate specimens. The groups which are most poorly represented are those which at the time of collecting were known to have been the special subjects of investigation by other naturalists in the island, e.g., mammals, birds, and the Phanerogamic plants.’ (Eaton, 1879).
The expedition left Kerguelen on 27 February, 1875. The preliminary papers on the botanical observations and collections were as follows. Eaton (1875a and extracted in 1875b) gave brief but useful notes on the vegetation, flowering times, and weather in the vicinity of Royal Sound. Mitten (1876b) listed 38 mosses (2 new species) and 14 liverworts (3 new species). Crombie (1875, 1876a) in association with Nylander listed 26 new species of lichens with brief preliminary descriptions in English. More detailed latin diagnoses were soon given (Crombie, 1876b) as well as a list of the other lichens collected by Eaton. Dickie (1876d) gave diagnoses in English of four new species of marine algae, and included latin diagnoses in a list of the 52 species collected by Eaton (Dickie, 1876e). Reinsch (1876) described the new species of fresh-water algae, and Berkeley (1876b, c) listed the five fungi collected (1 new species). In many of these groups Eaton had made considerable additions to the number of species known from the island.
In 1879 an extra volume of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society was devoted to the petrological, zoological and botanical collections made on Kerguelen and Rodriguez. In the section on Kerguelen an attempt is made to assemble complete lists in all groups from all available sources. The records in the Flora Antarctica are expanded by those in the Challenger collections and those of the British and American Transit of Venus expeditions. The main results of the German Transit of Venus expedition were not yet published but a preliminary paper by Naumann (1876) was overlooked. Introductory notes are given by Eaton followed by comments on the relations of the flora and a list of the flowering plants, ferns, lycopods and Characeae by Hooker. Then follows mosses (Mitten), lichens (Crombie), marine algae (Dickie), fresh-water algae (Reinsch) and fungi (Berkeley).
F. Naumann: Kerguelen and Straits of Magellan, 1874-76.
S.M.S. Gazelle (Captain Baron von Schleinitz) left Kiel on 21 page 60 June, 1874 on a two year voyage round the world to deliver and support the German transit of Venus expedition at Kerguelen, and to carry out oceanographic research. The expedition passed close to Penguin and Possession Islands in the Crozet group, and on 22 October arrived at Betsy Cove on the north coast of Kerguelen (Fig. 1). Here the observatory was erected and the Gazelle was based. The observation party consisted of C. Börgen, leader; L. Weinek, deputy leader, who published brief reminiscences (1911); an astronomer, a photographer and a mechanic; and Dr. Th. Studer, zoologist, doctor and photographic assistant. Botanical collecting at Kerguelen and elsewhere was the responsibility of Dr. H. Naumann, surgeon on the Gazelle, who had opportunities to collect at various points on the north and east of the island when the Gazelle explored the coast. The main movements of the vessel were: 19-24 November, to Royal Sound and return, to visit the British and American expeditions; 28 November-6 December, to Christmas Harbour and return, visiting Successful Bay and Rhodes Bay; 24 December-11 January an ocean cruise north to 40°S; 11-22 January, Winter Harbour, Kleine Whale Bay, Grosse Whale Bay, and return to Betsy Cove; 25-28 January, an ocean cruise to the south. The expedition left Kerguelen on 5 February, 1875, called at the island of St Paul on the 12th, and arrived at Mauritius on 25 February. From here the observation party returned home, with the exception of Dr. Studer who remained with the expedition. After a year in the East Indies and the Pacific Ocean the Gazelle entered the Straits of Magellan on 1 February, 1876, and anchored in St Joseph's Harbour, Tuesday Bay late that evening. On 3 February the vessel moved eastwards, arriving at Angosto Harbour at 6 p.m., and leaving again at 2 a.m. on 4 February to anchor late that evening off Punta Arenas. On 8 February the expedition left for Montevideo and arrived at Kiel on 28 April, 1876.
From Mauritius Naumann (1876), sent home an outline of his observations at Kerguelen. He had added two ranunculi, a cerastium, a poa, a rumex and four ferns to the records in the Flora Antarctica. Most of these were also discovered by the other transit expeditions with the exception of Rumex acetosella and a species of Hymenophyllum. Naumann also observed flowering times, the effect of the climate on plant growth, and gave some of the first comments on the ecology of Kerguelen seaweeds and diatoms. The collections were relatively neglected until 1883 when Adolf Engler, then Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kiel, was asked to organise their description. Between 1883 and 1886, six preliminary papers appeared in the Botanische Jahrbücher and four of these are useful to us. J. Müller (1883) recorded 11 lichens from Kerguelen (2 new species) and 11 from the Straits of Magellan (2 new species). Karl Müller (1884) described only the novel mosses collected by Naumann and listed 80 new species from Kerguelen and 4 from the Straits. Böckeler (1884) recorded a sedge from Tuesday Bay, and Haeckel (1885) listed 6 page 61 grasses from Kerguelen and 13 from the Straits of Magellan including the new Agrostis paucinodis from Punta Arenas.
The five volumes on the Gazelle expedition did not appear until 1889-90. The first volume (Rottok, 1889) is narrative and describes the geography, weather, climate and flora of Kerguelen and has notes on the vegetation of those places visited in the Straits of Magellan. The fifth volume (1890) has detailed meteorological records and lists the daily position of the Gazelle. The fourth volume (1889) on botany contains a review of the botanical results of the voyage by Engler and sections by E. Askenasy (algae), F. V. von Thümen (fungi), J. Müller (lichens), F. Schiffner (liverworts), K. (C.A.F.W.) Müller (mosses), M. Kuhn (ferns and lycopods) and A. Engler (phanerogams). The description of the diatoms by Janisch was not ready in time for publication and Engler's section on the phanerogams is incomplete. He explains in his foreword that the authorised funds for publication had been almost exhausted, and that he had to shorten either the liverwort or the phanerogam sections. He decided to prune the latter, as most of the flowering plants from many of the regions visited were already well known. Readers will therefore find that only the grasses from Kerguelen and the Straits of Magellan are mentioned in the phanerogam section, with the remaining species briefly listed in Engler's review of the botanical results of the voyage. For Kerguelen Engler lists a collection of 22 species of flowering plants, and Kuhn lists 2 lycopods and 3 ferns (omitting, for some reason, Naumann's Hymenophyllum). Engler summarises the other cryptogam collections as follows: of the 53 species of algae, some 14 were new for Kerguelen; of the 13 liverworts, 6 were new species; 80 new species of mosses were described in the 91 species collected; and there was one new species of fungus and 6 new species of lichens. From Tuesday Bay in the Straits of Magellan Engler listed 31 species of flowering plants, and 9 ferns as well as 12 new species of liveworts, 2 of mosses, and one seaweed. The collection from Punta Arenas included 65 species of flowering plants (with one new grass), 3 ferns, 2 new moss species and one new liverwort.
W. Schur and H. Krone: Auckland Islands, 1874-75.
The only connection between the German expedition to the Auckland Islands and the voyage of the Gazelle, was that officers of both expeditions were briefed together in Berlin, and that a short account of the Auckland Island expedition, and its meteorological records were published in the Gazelle's report (Rottok, 1889, Anhang 2). The party consisted of two naval officers, captain-lieutenant Becks and sub-lieutenant Siegel; two astronomers, Dr. H. Seeliger and Dr. W. Schur; two photographers, H. Krone and Dr. G. Wolfram; a mechanic, H. Leyser, and an assistant-photographer J. Krone. The men took ordinary passages to Melbourne where they chartered a French barque theAlexandrine, and arrived at Ross Harbour, Auckland page 62 Islands on 15 October, 1874. The station was set up in Terror Cove, and here the party remained, making no explorations other than local excursions to the Ross Harbour Islands. Beck however took his four chronometers on the Alexandrine to the Bluff in Southland, and compared them by telephone with those of the American expedition at Queenstown. The party left the island on 6 March, 1875, for Melbourne and home.
Herr F. Kurtz, a member of the Botanical Society of Brandenburg, had asked Dr. Schur to collect plants, and Schur returned with about 50 ‘gutgetrockneten’ specimens representing 27 species, five of which were listed as new records for the Auckland Islands (Kurtz, 1875). Kurtz also compiled a list of Auckland Island vascular plants from Hooker's Flora Antarctica and the ‘Handbook’. Meanwhile a collection by Hermann Krone had come to hand, and while reporting on this, Kurtz (1877) made the following corrections to the five new records mentioned above. The Gleichenia flabellata had in fact been collected near Melbourne; the novel Gnaphalium was only G. luteo-album, already recorded; and the record of native flax, Phormium tenax, was from introduced plants. (These can still be seen on the site of the Enderby settlement and probably supplied plaited articles and twine). There remain Lomaria lanceolata and Lycopodium densum which have not been listed since and could well be misidentified for Blechnum (Lomaria) durum and L. varium. Krone's collection proved more fruitful. From the site of a whaling station (undoubtedly the Enderby settlement in the next bay) he had gathered 16 species of weeds; and Hierochloe redolens, Caladenia minor, Samolus repens, and Colobanthus billardieri were new records of indigenous plants. These records, published in an obscure German journal, were overlooked by New Zealand botanists. Schenck (1905) who could have made them known, listed only the weeds, and accepted Cockayne's list of natives (1904) as up-to-date and authoritative. The only German gatherings mentioned in Cheese-man's comprehensive list of 1909 are again the weeds, obviously copied from Schenck, and Cheeseman mistakenly implies that Kurtz was the collector. By Cheeseman's time, however, most of the German records had been rediscovered and were listed from other sources. The exception was Caladenia minor, not found again until 1963 (Godley, 1969).
E. Kershner: Auckland Islands, 1874.
In Kidder's report on the natural history of Kerguelen (1876) a small appendix is devoted to miscellaneous collections made by Surgeon E. Kershner in New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. Also mentioned is ‘a considerable collection of flowering plants from the Auckland Islands’ which ‘was taken from the neighbourhood of the German transit-station at that place.’ The only other information given was that the plants were sent to Cambridge for identification, page 63 and that the woods were at the Agricultural Department in Washington. A passage in the German narrative throws light on this collection. After Captain Chandler had landed the American transit parties in the New Zealand area, the Swatara went to Hobart, where Chandler read in newspapers from Melbourne that no news had been received from the German party since its departure for the Auckland Islands. After confirming this by telegraph with the worried Consul, Chandler set sail for Ross Harbour arriving there on 23 December to find the Germans safe and sound. This was undoubtedly the occasion of Kershner's collection, and the specimens are probably still in the Smithsonian Institute.
H. Filhol: Campbell Island, 1874.
In preparation for the French Transit of Venus Expedition, arrangements were made between the navy and the Academie des Sciences, Institut de France for the Vire, stationed at New Caledonia, to make a reconnaissance of Campbell Island. Arriving via Sydney and Port Chalmers, Dunedin, the Vire spent from 28 November to 25 December, 1873, at the island and returned via Port Chalmers (Otago Daily Times, 22 November, 30 December, 1873). Perserverance Harbour was charted by Lieutenants Paturel and Rathouis, sites for the expedition's inspection were chosen in a sheltered bay at the head of the harbour, and vegetables were optimistically planted nearby in the Anse du Jardin, our present Garden Cove. The main task was to make detailed meteorological observations and as a result Captain Jacquemart's report predicted a 60 per cent chance of seeing the beginning of the transit, and a 30 per cent chance of seeing the end. Undaunted, the observation party left Marseilles by passenger vessel on 21 June, 1874, and went via Ceylon, Singapore and Batavia to join the Vire at Sydney. The leader, A. Bouquet de la Grye and his assistant P. Hatt were naval hydrographers; Lieutenant Th. Courre-jolles was precision photographer and also took charge of a shore party of ten sailors; and Dr. Henri Filhol (1843-1902), then of the Ministry of Public Instruction, was surgeon, biologist and geologist. They left Sydney on 2 September and on 9 September the Vire anchored once again in Perserverance Harbour where a camp of 16 huts was laid out under the supervision of Kerson, the master mechanic and christened Kervenus. In botany Filhol concentrated on ‘les infiniment petits du règne végétale’ as being those least collected by Hooker. But his main interests were in geology and zoology. ‘Vingtdeux caisses énormes ont été mises par ses soins à bord de la Vire; elles serviront à donner les elements d'une monographic complete de l'ile’ (Bouquet de la Grye, 1875). The Vire remained with the expedition except between 19 October and 19 November when she took dispatches to Port Chalmers and visited Wellington, Lyttelton and Akaroa (Otago Daily Times, 9 November, 1874). The report in Nature (Anon, 1874) that she left for Bourbon on 4 October to wait page 64 until the observations were finished is incorrect. The expedition left the island on 27 December with no regrets, was prevented from visiting the Auckland Islands by bad weather, and arrived at Port Chalmers, Dunedin, on 30 December (Otago Daily Times, 31 December, 1874). Here the party was warmly received by members of the Otago Institute, and Filhol worked in Professor Hutton's laboratory and lodged with F. R. Chapman (Chapman, 1891). He also visited Stewart Island, where Mr. Traill helped him in his studies of marine animals and in dredging. Then followed visits to museums and scientists in Christchurch (Haast), Wellington (Travers, Kirk) and Auckland (Cheeseman) before returning home via Fiji.
The third volume of the reports on the French Transit of Venus expeditions is devoted to Campbell Island and was published in two parts (1882, 1885). The first part is mainly concerned with the physical sciences, but, as well as some maps, contains the narrative, and meteorological and tidal observations, all by Bouquet de la Grye. In the narrative there is little of ecological interest except for the record of fires in two areas. The second part by Filhol (1885), records his zoological and geological observations, and has two short chapters on botany. These consist mainly of species lists and are obviously meant to include all plants known from the island. Although Filhol does not explain how his lists were assembled it is possible to reconstruct them from Hooker's ‘Handbook of the New Zealand Flora’ (1864, 1867) and from three papers which deal with Filhol's own collections. These are on the diatoms (Petit, 1877), the lichens (Nylander, 1876) and on flowering plants, ferns and lycopods, together with a few lichens, mosses, liverworts and algae (Kirk, 1882). Kirk dealt with ‘the collections of Campbell Island plants in the Otago Museum’, and with ‘a set presented to me by the same collector, Dr. Filhol, also with a small collection made by Lieutenant Rathouis of the Vire —.’
Diatoms: These were gathered at Perserverance Harbour, at Stewart Island (Paterson's Inlet and Copper Island), in Foveaux Strait off the northern tip of Stewart Island, and in Lyall Bay, Wellington. Petit (1877) found 172 species and 4 varieties in the collections, of which 17 species and 3 varieties were described as new. Thirty one species (5 new species, 1 new variety) were from Campbell Island. Filhol (1885) listed Petit's identifications with one omission.
Lichens: Nylander (1876) lists 35 species from Campbell Island, with 10 species considered new, and Kirk (1882) lists 10 species. Filhol (1885) gives a list of 47 species which is made up of the 13 species listed in the ‘Handbook’ together with Nylander's new species and other new records, and 4 names from Kirk not mentioned by either Hooker or Nylander.
Mosses: Kirk (1882) lists 10 species. Filhol (1885) lists 42 species, which are the records for Campbell Island in the ‘Handbook’ plus 4 names not mentioned therein from Kirk's list. It should be page 65 noted that here and in the other Filhol lists there are many typographical errors.
Liverworts: Kirk (1882) lists 2 species. The 21 species listed by Filhol (1885) are all recorded for Campbell Island in the ‘Handbook’ with the exception of one taken from Kirk's list. However, not all the ‘Handbook’ records are given by Filhol.
Algae: Kirk (1882) lists 4 species, and Filhol (1885) lists 20 species. Filhol's list is made up of the records in the ‘Handbook’ plus one not mentioned therein taken from Kirk.
Fungi: The 10 species listed by Filhol are those recorded for Campbell Island in the ‘Handbook’.
Ferns and Lycopods: Kirk (1882) lists 7 ferns and 1 lycopod. Histiopteris incisa and probably Hypolepis millefolium are new records for the island, and Blechnum durum is recognised as such from the island for the first time. Filhol's list of 18 species are those in the ‘Handbook’ plus these new records.
Flowering Plants: Kirk (1882) lists 29 species, and the only novelty is the record of Celmisia verbascoides which has never been seen before or since. Filhol's list of 62 species is based on the ‘Handbook’ but a few records therein have been overlooked.
Apart therefore from Filhol's contribution to the geology and zoology of the island his contribution to botany lies mainly in his collections of diatoms and lichens.
The French will always be associated with Campbell Island, not only by their pioneer scientific observations but by the names which they left behind. The expedition and its members are honoured in Vire Point, Jacquemart Island, Courrejolles Peninsula, and Mounts Azimuth and Filhol, while the names of other peaks can be traced in the Council list of the French Academy of Sciences as follows (Compt. Rend. 1875) Sciences Mathematiques: Section 1, Geometry, Puiseux (Victor-Alexandre); Section 3, Astronomy, Faye (Hervé-Auguste-Etienne-Albans); Section 4, Geographie et Navigation, Paris (Le Vice-Amiral Francois-Edmond), Abbadie (Antoine-Thompson D’) Yvon Villarceau (Antoine-Joseph-Francois); Section 5, Physique Générale, Fizeau (Armand-Hippolyte-Louis); Secrétaires Perpétuels, Dumas (Jean-Baptiste) pour les Sciences Physiques. And Mount Menhir really commemorates the Breton sailors described by De la Grye as they built a stone quay and jetty at Kervènus: ‘Il y a à bord de la Vire et parmi nos matelots quelques Bretons qui sont de taille à former des travaux d'art avec les menhirs de leur pays.’
J. H. Scott (1880) and A. Hamilton (1894): Macquarie Island
The first extensive botanical collections from Macquarie Island were made by two members of the University of Otago staff, both of whom made the hazardous voyage in small vessels trading to the island for penguin and sea-elephant oil. A main aim on both occasions was to acquire sea-elephant skeletons — still then a rarity — page 66 for the University museums, but botany and other branches of natural history profited as well.
John H. Scott (1851-1914), Professor of Anatomy and Physiology, and the father of the Otago University Medical School, visited Mac-quarie on the schooner ‘Jessie Nichol’ in November, 1880, and spent ‘a few days’ ashore (Scott, 1883). He wrote ‘The changes which the New Zealand flora undergoes in the Auckland and Campbell Islands have been often noted, but almost nothing was known of its characters in Macquarie Island. I wished to notice how many plants survived in that high latitude, and what changes in appearance and habit these had undergone in suiting themselves to the rigorous climate; whether our New Zealand alpine forms were to be found there at the sea level, and whether there were to be found any new forms unrepresented even in the highest and most remote parts of New Zealand.’ Scott's gatherings demonstrated the paucity of the vascular flora and its predominant New Zealand character. He listed a collection of 16 species of flowering plants, 3 ferns, 8 mosses, 7 lichens and 6 fungi. The vascular plants in the collection were also seen by Thomas Kirk, who later (1891b) published a modified list of 17 species of flowering plants and 3 ferns. There are Scott specimens at the Auckland War Memorial Museum and the Otago Museum.
Augustus Hamilton (1854-1913), a noted anthropologist and then Registrar at the University, left Dunedin on 22 February 1894, on the ketch ‘Gratitude’, and landed at Lusitania Bay on the southern east coast on 12 March (Hamilton, 1895). Most of Hamilton's time was spent here, but on 22 March he walked northwards along the coast-line to the Nuggets, and next day before departing, spent a few hours on the North Head. Hamilton's collection comprised 27 species of flowering plants (plus 3 others observed), 3 ferns and a lycopod. Three of the grasses were described as new by Kirk (1895). Specimens exist at the Dominion Museum, Otago Museum, Botany Division, D.S.I.R., and Kew. A collection of mosses and lichens was also made but Hamilton reported that it was too damaged by wet to be of use.
By their collections and by their general comments on the vegetation of the island, Scott and Hamilton filled an outstanding gap in the knowledge of southern plant geography. And that this was done at considerable personal risk was tragically shown, when, on the homeward voyage of the ‘Gratitude’ a heavy sea carried away one of the watch, the cook, and a Maori boy without a chance of rescue.
J. Buchanan: Auckland and Campbell Islands, 1883.
On 15 December, 1883, the New Zealand Government steamer Stella (Captain W. J. Grey) left Wellington to search for two boats’ crews from the Sarah W. Hunt reported blown to sea from Campbell Island (Evening Post, 27 December, 1883). On an earlier voyage page 67 Grey (1881) had reported to the legislative council on out-of-season sealing at the Snares and Auckland Islands. On board the Stella was John Buchanan (1819-98) naturalist and draughtsman, who, as assistant to Sir James Hector, Director of the Colonial Museum and Geological Survey, was in charge of the Museum's botanical collections. The Stella arrived at Campbell Island on 20 December, steamed round the island, made landings at North-east Bay and Per-serverance Harbour, found one of the boat's crews, and allowed Buchanan one day and two half-days for collecting. He devoted a whole day to gathering living plants, which were mislaid on the return voyage, but brought back a large collection of dried specimens for the museum (now Dominion Museum). His account of the island (1884) is not extensive but includes some excellent sketches of the topography. His main contribution was to recognise and describe Pleurophyllum hookeri, a third species of this southern endemic composite genus. Returning home the Stella called at Carnley Harbour, Auckland Islands on 23 December, where the depot at Camp Cove was inspected. Landings were also made at Sandy Bay and Port Ross (Evening Post, 27 December, 1883). Buchanan wrote nothing about the botany of the Auckland Islands, but again made excellent sketches, which were published by Chapman (1891). The Stella arrived back at Port Chalmers on 27 December. There is no evidence for the statement by Scholefield (1940) and by Hamlin (1966) that Buchanan visited Macquarie Island.
A. Reischek and W. Dougall: Snares, Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, Bounty Islands, 1888.
On her annual southern tour in 1888 to inspect depots for shipwrecked sailors, the Stella (Captain John Fairchild) took as passengers Andreas Reischek (1845-1902) and William Dougall. The first was an Austrian naturalist, taxidermist and collector who worked in New Zealand for twelve years, and the second an Invercargill photographer. Leaving Bluff on 19 January the Stella visited Stewart Island, spent 23 January at the Snares, and then made the usual circumnavigation of the Auckland Islands (24-26 January) with landings in Port Ross and Carnley Harbour. Campbell Island was visited from 28-31 January and landings made on the Antipodes (2 February) and the Bountys. Dougall's rare pamphlet ‘Far South’ (1888a) contains pieces of useful information on the general appearance of the vegetation and of stock put ashore. He also advertised a set of 51 photographs taken during the voyage (1888b). I have not been able to trace a set, or the negatives, in Invercargill. The only set that I know of is in the Hocken Library, Dunedin, and contains the following note by T. M. Hocken: ‘I was the only purchaser of the complete set of McDougall's (sic) photographs. They were exhibited for some time in a shop in Princes Street, Dunedin, but failed to attract much attention or interest. The page 68 photographs were taken in January and February 1888.’ There are photos from all islands visited, but only a few are panoramas, useful in tracing changes in the vegetation. Reischek's accounts (1889, 1930) deal mainly with birds. Although the first naturalist to set foot on the Snares and Antipodes Islands he did not collect plants, but this gap was filled a few years later by Thomas Kirk.
T. Kirk and F. R. Chapman: Snares, Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, Bounty Islands, 1890.
The passengers on the Hinemoa (Captain Fairchild) leaving Bluff on 8 January, 1890, included Thomas Kirk (1828-1898), doyen of New Zealand botanists, and Frederick Revans Chapman (1849-1936) of Dunedin, later knighted for his services to law. Kirk (1891a) wrote to Sir Joseph Hooker, ‘more than forty years ago reviews of ‘Flora Antarctica’ laid fast hold of me, and kindled an intense desire to see Chrysobactron rossii, Pleurophyllum speciosum, and Celmisia vernicosa in their native soil. After long waiting, the hasty pleasure has been realised, and I hope to enjoy it again before I die’. Kirk and Chapman landed on the Snares on 9 January, and Kirk made the first collection of 24 species of flowering plants (4 naturalised) and three ferns. They were at the Auckland Islands from 10-12 January, with landings in Ross and Carnley Harbours, and spent 13-14 January at Campbell Island, visiting Northwest Bay, Perseverance Harbour, and Northeast Harbour. On the Antipodes on 16 January Kirk again made a first collection, of 43 species of flowering plants (2 naturalised) and 12 ferns and lycopods. The Bountys were visited next day. Chapman's narrative (1891) gives much new information, particularly about the eastern end of Adams Island, the Snares and Antipodes. Kirk (1891b) gave a general account of the islands to the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science in Christchurch, and later republished with little change the sections on the Antipodes (Kirk, 1891c) and the Snares (Kirk, 1891d). The information on the Snares was again published with little change, but with the addition of descriptions of three new taxa (Kirk, 1891e) and this paper was republished (Kirk, 1891f). The letter to Hooker contains interesting first impressions of some of the species (Kirk, 1891a). Kirk's specimens are mainly at the Dominion Museum, Wellington.
South American And Atlantic Sectors
W. Lechler: Falkland Islands, 1850, Chile (1850-52, 1854) and
Straits of Magellan, 1852-53.
Willibald Lechler (1814-1856) went to Chile in 1850 with a small advisory committee of the Stuttgart Society for Emigration and Colonisation to inspect land for settlement along the river Bueno page 69 (Gunckel, 1948). Lechler was a pharmacist and, when his inspection was finished, settled at Arique, from whence he made exploratory journeys and collected plant specimens for sale in Europe. In compiling an outline of Lechler's itinerary I have used advertised lists of plants (Hohenacker, 1854, 1856); papers with collecting numbers and localities (Nylander, 1855, Mettenius, 1856, Lechler, 1857, Mitten, 1869); and papers with collecting numbers, localities, and months of collection (Grisebach, 1854, Schultz, 1855). Only rarely have I found a year of collection quoted (Pilger, 1937, Cabrera, 1949, Lourteig, 1951, Moore, 1968).
Lechler collected in the East Falkland Islands, at Port Stanley and on nearby Mount Williams, from 2-18 September, 1850 (Moore, 1968). This information was obtained from herbarium specimens (Dr. D. M. Moore in litt.). Specimens from the Falkland Islands were advertised by Hohenacker (1853) as follows: ‘W. Lechler plantae insularum Maclovianarum, 40-50 Gefäss—und Zellenpflanzen. Sie werden zu 20 fl. rh, 48 Frcs. die Centurie berechnet. Exemplare von Gefässpflanzen, die ohne Bluthe oder Frucht gesammelt worden sind, werden gratis beigelegt.’ A list of Lechler's Falkland Island plants (Lechler, 1857) contains only one seaweed, six lichens (Nos. 60, 61, 65, 66, 68, 71) and four flowering plants (including Nos. 106, 107, 123). Mitten (1869) lists two mosses (Nos 96 and 97), while Moore (1968) found 17 species of flowering plants on 18 sheets at Kew and these include Nos. 105, 111, 114, 125, 128, 131, 140 and 142. He also cited No. 3190 (Poa alopecurus) which is an anomalous number for the Falkland Islands and unfortunately has no date.
After leaving the Falkland Islands Lechler went to Chile, presumably around Cape Horn, and probably landed at a port on the Valdivian coast. Representative numbers and localities for the period are: 192, Nov., ‘Valdivia, prope Chayguin’; 221, Nov., ‘Valdivia, prope urbem’; 305, Dec., ‘Valdivia, ad fl. Futa,’ (Grisebach, 1854); 359, 4 Dec., 1850 ‘Puerta del Trumao,’ (cited by Lourteig, 1951, under Ranunculus apiifolius); 473, 506, 514, 557, ‘prope colon. Arique provinc. Valdiviae;’ 501, 504, ‘prope Corral in prov. Valdiviae’ (Mettenius, 1856); 672, ‘Valdivia ad Arique, in arborum truncis’ (Mitten, 1869). Lechler then explored the Cordillera de Ranco in eastern Valdivia: 769, 787 (Mettenius, 1856); 780, 781, 829, 838, 840, all in March (Grisebach, 1854); and 799, 820, in March, 1852 (cited by Cabrera, 1949). This first collection from Chile was announced by Hohenacker (1853) as: ‘W. Lechler plantae chilenses. Diese Pflanzen, von denen noch Sammlungen von gegen 200 Arten abgegeben werden können, sind grösstentheils in der Provinz Valdivia gesammelt.’ However the list advertised next year had only 95 species of lichens, mosses, ferns and flowering plants (Hohenacker, 1854).
Lechler then went south to Chiloé: 868, 872, 880 and 885, all near Ancud in July (Grisebach, 1854). This gathering was classified under Plantae magellanicae (cf. No. 880, Lechler, 1857). In the spring page 70 Lechler began his collections in the Straits of Magellan, whence he had accompanied Lieutenant-Colonel B. E. Philippi (brother of the great naturalist R. A. Philippi) who was sent to take charge of the troubled Chilean colony at Punta Arenas (Gunckel, 1948). The months given by Schultz and by Grisebach (op. cit.) run from September to April. The general trend of the collecting numbers is in chronological order but there are several anomalies. The lowest number that I have is 960, a gathering at Punta Arenas in November, 1852, and cited by Pilger (1937). But the earliest numbers cited by Grisebach are 969 and 978 from Punta Arenas in October, and Schultz has 1053 and 1056 in September. For March, Schultz has 1249, 1270 and 1277, whereas Grisebach has 1184 in April. Most specimens were collected from Punta Arenas, with others from Port Famine, Oazy Harbour, Pecket, Elizabeth Island and Cape Negro. Hampe (1854) notes a liverwort from York Bay. Lechler (1857) lists 2 lichens, 4 mosses, and 53 flowering plants under Plantae magellanicae.
Whether Lechler returned to Europe from the Straits of Magellan for a short time I do not know, but the next gatherings are in June and July 1854 from Peru: 1754, 1804, 1815, 1823, 1963, 2212 (Schultz, 1856), and 1821 (Pilger, 1937). In December Lechler was again on the Cordillera de Ranco: 2904 (Schultz, 1856), 2904, 3017 (Cabrera, 1949) and 3071 (Pilger, 1937). Lists of the second Chilean collection and that from Peru were advertised by Hohenacker (1856). Lechler returned to Europe, married a daughter of Steudel and set out again for Peru. He died on 5 August, 1856, of yellow fever two days after leaving Panama, and was buried at sea near the port which serves Guayaquil (Anon., 1856). A list of herbaria holding Lechler specimens is given by Lanjouw (1945).
N. J. Andersson: Straits of Magellan, 1852.
The Swedish Botanists Solander and Sparrman, sailing under the British flag, were among the first to gather plants in the far south; but it was not until 1852, during the voyage of the frigate Eugenie (Captain C. A. Virgin) that a truly Swedish expedition collected in these latitudes. The voyage was mainly concerned with the expanding Swedish trade on the west coast of America, the East Indies and China; but physical and biological observations were also made for the Royal Academy of Science, which nominated as botanist Nils Johann Andersson (1821-1880) Docent in Botany at the University of Upsala and later Professor of Botany at Stockholm. Narratives were written by Skogman (1854-55) who was first lieutenant and astronomer, and by Andersson (1853-54). The first was translated into German by Etzel (1856) and there was also a German translation of Andersson. Andersson's account of the Straits contains nothing new from a botanical point of view.page 71
The Eugenie left Karlskrona on 30 September, 1851 and was in the Straits of Magellan from 28 January to 11 February, 1852. The first landing was at Port Famine from 30 January to 3 February where Andersson and Kinsberg, the zoologist, unsuccessfully attempted to climb Mount Tarn but returned nevertheless with useful collections (Etzel, 1856). Andersson records that because of the recent mutiny and escapes from the convict settlement at nearby Punta Arenas, this was ‘The first and probably the last time I had to botanize under the protection of His Swedish Majesty's Marines' rifles.’ (transl.) A further landing was made at Nicholas Bay (3-7 February), and anchorages made at Yorks Reach (8-9 February), and Borja Bay (9-10 February) before the Eugenie went north to Valparaiso. Nothing appears to have been published on the higher plants collected by Andersson in the Straits, although over the years specimens have been widely distributed, and one may find an occasional sheet in New Zealand herbaria. The bryophyte collection was studied by Angström (1872) and the list includes 27 mosses (7 proposed new species) and 36 liverworts (5 proposed new species) from Port Famine. Angström wrote: ‘Among the foregoing species there are only six that had been already noted for Port Famine and the Straits of Magellan.’ (transl.)
R. O. Cunningham: Straits of Magellan, West Patagonian Channels, Falkland Islands, 1866-69.
H.M.S. Nassau (Captain R. C. Mayne) left Plymouth Sound on 17 September, 1866, to continue the survey of the Straits of Magellan and the west Patagonian channels begun by King and Fitzroy. On board as naturalist was Robert Oliver Cunningham (1841-1918) from whose excellent narrative (1871) the following itinerary is taken.
21 Dec. 1886 — 12 June 1867
The greater part of this time was devoted to surveying the eastern end of the Straits from Cape Virgin to Punta Arenas with several landings on both north and south shores. The Nassau coaled at Port Stanley, East Falklands between 19 February and 2 March, and escorted H.M.S. Zealous westwards in the Straits between 10 and 15 March with brief landings at Port Famine, Port Gallant, and Playa Parda Cove. The winter was spent at Rio de Janeiro.
17 Nov. 1867 — 1 June 1868
The first half of the second season was again spent near the eastern end of the Straits except for two diversions. Between 21 and 25 December the Nassau went to the mouth of the Gallegos River on the east Patagonian coast to search for fossils, and between 13 and 28 page 72 January was coaling again at Port Stanley. She returned to the Straits through Falkland Sound where landings were made on the Tyssen Islands and at Fox Bay on the West Falklands. On 9 March the vessel left Punta Arenas for Ancud, Chiloé, with landings recorded by Cunningham at the following harbours: Straits of Magellan: Playa Parda Cove; Smyth Channel: Sholl Bay and Otter Islands; Messier Channel (Wellington Island): Port Eden; Messier Channel (mainland): Halt Bay. From 28 March to 12 April the vessel was at Ancud, and then went south again to the Messier Channel, with the following landings: Chiloé (east coast): Oscuro Cove and Huite nearby; Tenoun; Tres Montes Peninsula: Port Otway; Messier Channel (Wellington Island): Port Eden and Hoskyn Cove; Messier Channel (mainland): Island Harbour and Halt Bay. The Nassau arrived back at Ancud on 22 May and on 1 June went north to Valparaiso and other ports for the winter.
14 Nov. 1868 — 29 April 1869
Between 14 and 20 November the expedition was again at Ancud and then went south with landings at Quehuy Island off the coast of eastern Chiloé, Port Melinka (Guaytecas Islands) and Port Laguna (Chonos Archipelago). From then on the survey was in the west Patagonian Channels and the western half of the Straits with the exception of February and part of March when survivors of a shipwreck were taken to Montevideo and the Gallegos River was visited again. Landings were made at the following harbours: Messier Channel (mainland): Connor Cove, Gray Harbour and Port Grappler; Sarmiento Channel: Port Bueno, Mayne Harbour, Fortune Bay and Columbine Cove; Smyth Channel: Otter Islands, Good's Bay; Straits of Magellan (south coast): Tuesday Bay, Port Churruca, Port Angosto and Swallow Bay; Straits of Magellan (north coast): Tamar Bay, Borja Bay, St Nicholas Bay, Wood's Bay, Port Famine and Punta Arenas. On 29 April the Nassau left the Straits for England.
Cunningham's narrative shows that he collected both plants and animals with energy at each of these many landings. Indeed he had a better opportunity for collecting in the little-known western region than any previous naturalist, including Darwin. His lichens were studied by Crombie (1876c) who lists 81 species, several varieties, and 14 new species, eleven of which are actually described by Nylander. From time to time in his narrative, Cunningham mentions outstanding plants at various localities, but unfortunately his collection of flowering plants, which would have given much information on distribution, was not put on record, although he wrote (1871) — ‘I hope also, before many months elapse, to institute a careful examination of my collections of plants now in the Royal Herbarium, Kew, and to draw up a report on the same.’ Greater knowledge of plant distribution in the western channels was to come a few years later with the visit of Savatier.
P. A. L. Savatier: Straits of Magellan and West Patagonian Channels, 1877, 1879.
Dr Paul-Amedée-Ludovic Savatier (1830-1891) left France in 1876 on La Magicienne for a tour of duty as Chief Medical Officer of the French Naval Division in the Pacific. His general account of the voyage (Savatier, 1880) states that on the outward voyage the vessel was in the Straits of Magellan and the west Patagonian Channels from 8-25 February, 1877, and on the homeward voyage from 20 January-7 February, 1879. For a time the only published botanical observations were Savatier's general description of vegetation in the Straits and the description of Isoetes savatieri from Port Bueno by Franchet (1884). Fortunately Savatier's gatherings were described in the reports of the French expedition to Cape Horn, where Bescherelle (1889) and Bescherelle and Massalongo (1889) give localities for the bryophytes, and Franchet (1889) gives both localities and dates for the flowering plants and ferns. The following itinerary has been reconstructed from these sources. Outward voyage (1877): 9-10 February, Punta Arenas; 11 February, Port Galant; 12-15 February, Port Churucca and Isthmus Bay on Desolation Island; 15-19 February, Port Bueno in the Sarmiento Channel; 21 February, Port Eden, Wellington Island; and from thence north to Valparaiso. Homeward journey (1879): 20-23 January, Port Otway. Tres Montes Peninsula; 24 January, Port Eden, Wellington Island; 26 January, Port Molyneux, Madre de Dios Island; 30 January, Port Churucca, Desolation Island; 31 January, Port Galant; 4-5 February, Punta Arenas. Savatier's collections, which are analysed by localities below, made an important contribution to the plant geography of western Patagonia, which was less well known than that of the mainland to the north or Tierra del Fuego to the south.
|Port Churucca and Isthmus Bay||22||7||1||14||31|
Franchet (1889) notes that ‘Le chiffre des espèces rapportées par le Dr. Savatier durant le voyage de La Magicienne s'élève à près de 1100; il les a toutes genereusement offertes a l'herbier du Muséum.’ Stapf (1909) records that the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, purchased Savatier's private collection from his daughter.
E. Ibar, Southern Patagonia, 1877; P. V. O'Ryan, West Patagonian Channels, 1879.
Enrique Ibar (1858-1878), a young assistant to Dr. R. A. Philippi, Director of the National Museum, Santiago, was sent as naturalist with the Chilean expedition which explored north of the Straits of Magellan in late 1877. There are two accounts of the journey (Ibar, 1879; Anon., 1880, with map). Ibar joined the corvette Magallanes (Captain Juan José Latorre) at Punta Arenas and visited Isabel Island, Pecket and Magdalena Island between 4 and 8 October. The corvette began her main voyage on 12 October from Punta Arenas, arriving at Las Minas in Skyring Water on 24 October, after visiting Agua Fresca, Bougainville Bay, Woods Bay, Port Tilly and Cerros Beagle (Fitzroy Channel). From Las Minas on 10 November Ibar set out with a party lead by Lieutenant J. T. Rogers to explore east and then north. Lake Argentina was reached on 10 December and Ibar arrived back at Punta Arenas on 26 December. Ibar collected mainly birds and plants for the National Museum and lists of his gatherings are scattered through the narrative.
The corvette Chacabuco (Captain Oscar Viel) left Punta Arenas on 2 January, 1879, to survey the west Patagonian channels. During January and February the surgeon, Pedro O'Ryan, collected some 30 species of plants at various harbours (O'Ryan, 1880).
Caracciolo and Vettor Pisani: Straits of Magellan and West Patagonian Channels, 1882.
The corvette Caracciolo (Captain Carlo de Amezaga) left Naples on 30 November, 1881 to rejoin the Italian Naval Division in the Pacific and to sail around the world. The voyage lasted until September, 1884, but our only concern is with the period 25 May - 8 August, 1882, when the Caracciolo sailed through the Straits of Magellan and the west Patagonian Channels, to Ancud, Chiloé. A small collection of flowering plants, ferns, mosses, liverworts and lichens was listed by Amezaga (1885) under three general headings—Straits of Magellan (39 species), western channels (51 species) and Chiloé (30 species). Unfortunately the list is of little value, because specific localities are not given, and the determinations are often only to generic level. Professor Pirotta, Director of the Botanic Gardens, Rome, who studied the material, explained that many specimens lacked flowers etc., necessary for proper determination, and that he lacked the necessary literature. However the lichens were studied again by Jatta (1890) who listed 33 species (one new) collected from Punta Arenas to Chiloé and gave specific localities for many. The remaining groups might also have rewarded a study by specialists, and the specimens, are, no doubt, still with the Instituto Botanico di Roma.page 75
The voyage of the Vettor Pisani (Captain G. Palumbo) was briefly described by Lieutenant Gaetano Chierchia (1884) who noted: ‘The Italian R. N. corvette Vettor Pisani left Italy in April, 1882 for a voyage round the world with the ordinary commission of a man-of-war. The Minister of Marine, wishing to obtain scientific results, gave orders to form, when possible, a marine zoological collection, and to carry on surveying, deep-sea soundings, and abyssal thermometrical measurements. The officers of the ship received their different scientific charges, and Prof. Dohrn, director of the Zoological Station at Naples, gave to the writer the necessary instructions for collecting and preserving sea animals. At the end of 1882 the Vettor Pisani visited the Straits of Magellan, the Patagonian Channels, and Chonos and Chiloe Islands; we surveyed the Darwin Channel, and following Dr Cunningham's work (who visited these places on board H.M.S. Nassau), we made a numerous collection of sea animals by dredging and fishing along the coasts.’
The expedition was in the Straits of Magellan and the western channels from 28 October to 18 November, 1882, and anchorages were made at Punta Arenas, St Nicholas Bay, Fortescue Bay, Guirior Bay and Port Churucca, all in the Straits of Magellan; and in the western channels at Isthmus Bay (Zach Peninsula), Port Bueno (Sarmiento Channel), Molyneux Sound (Madre de Dios Island), Port Eden (Wellington Island), and points further north (Chierchia, 1885). Apparently the only plants collected were the algae gathered by the hydrographer, Lieutenant Cesare Marcacci, at the request of Antonio Piccone. A general account of these was given by Piccone (1886a, b) followed by a list of 26 species from Punta Arenas and 13 species from St Nicholas Bay (Piccone, 1886c). Further records were added later from the Straits of Magellan, Punta Arenas, Port Churucca, and the Patagonian Channels (Piccone, 1889).
J. Ball: West Patagonian Channels and Straits of Magellan, 1882.
John Ball F.R.S. (1818-1889), pupil of Henslow, sometime Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, and Hooker's companion on the Moroccan expedition made ‘a hurried journey round South America’ in 1882 (Ball, 1887). His account of the voyage through the west Patagonian channels in mid-winter is an excellent introduction to this wild region. As is customary the vessel anchored each night, and collecting was possible at three of the harbours. On 4 June at Hale Cove, Orlebar Island, at the northern entrance to the Messier Channel, two officers went ashore in the dark and brought specimens aboard. One of these, Hebe salicifolia, was for many years the southernmost record of the species in Chile (Godley, 1964). Late next day Ball collected at Port Eden on Wellington Island, and on the afternoon of the 7th at Port Bueno in the northern Sarmiento Channel. From 10-15 page 76 June, Ball was at Punta Arenas where he met Dr. Decio Vinciguerra, zoologist with the Argentine expedition, who was collecting there while his colleagues explored Tierra del Fuego. Specimens collected by Ball are at Kew.
C. Spegazzini: Southern Patagonia, Staten Island, Tierra del Fuego, 1882.
Lieutenant Giacomo Bove (1852-1887), an Italian naval officer and member of Nordenskiöld's arctic expedition (1878-79) proposed, on his return, a major expedition to the far south. The home port was to be Genoa, and Buenos Aires the point of departure for the antarctic. The vessel would call at Tierra del Fuego before exploring the coast of Graham Land, and would then circumnavigate and explore the antarctic coast before going north to Cape town. This proposal caught the imagination of the Geographical Institute of the Argentine which formed a ‘Comision Cooperadora para la Expedicion al Polo Sur,’ and offered Bove assistance. Bove replied suggesting an Expedicion Antartica Argentina to explore Graham land, but he was finally appointed leader of an Expedicion Austral Argentina to explore the coasts of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. The preliminary correspondence is well set out in the introduction to Bove's narrative (1883).
Decio Vinciguerra was officially listed as zoologist and botanist to the expedition, but botanical work was taken over by Carlos Spegazzini, who was described as naturalist and representative of the University of Buenos Aires. Spegazzini (1858-1926) was a pupil of Beccari and Saccardo and arrived in the Argentine in late 1879 (Molfino, 1929). He wrote a concise account of his movements during the expedition (Spegazzini, 1883b) and later listed his collecting localities (Spegazzini, 1896).
The Argentinian corvette Cabo de Hornos (Commandante Luis Piedrabuena) sailed from Buenos Aires on 17 December, 1881, visited Santa Cruz on the Patagonian coast, and on 8 February, 1882 arrived at Port Roca on the north coast of Staten Island. The vessel moved to a safer anchorage at Port Cook on 16 February. Spegazzini wrote (1883b) ‘En los 48 dias de permanencia en esa isla, exploré completamente el valle comprendido entre Monte Buenos Aires y Monte Italia, y las playas adyacentes, las vertientes de Puerto Cook y Puerto Vancouver con los cerros cercanos, y todos los valles y alturas entre Puerto Cook y Puerto San Juan. Las colecciones hechas fueron abundantes, especialmente en criptogamas, plantas que predominan en la vegetacion de esta Zona.’ He gave a brief and useful account of the vegetation (1883a) and listed as collecting localities Ports Roca, Hoppner, Cook, St John and Pactolus Bay on the north coast, and on the south coast, Blossom Bay and Port Vancouver (Spegazzini, 1896). This was the first major botanical collection in Staten Island, and the first collection since Eights in 1829.page 77
On 28 March the Cabo de Hornos left Port Cook for the Straits of Magellan, anchored in Possession Bay on 10 April, and left for Gregory Bay on 15 April. The slow progress of the Cabo de Hornos led Bove to ride ahead from Gregory Bay to Punta Arenas, where he hired the San Jose, a smaller vessel more suitable for the channels of Tierra del Fuego. Spegazzini stayed with the ship, collected at Gregory Bay from 16-19 April, and on 23 April arrived at Punta Arenas. Here the party split up. Vinciguerra remained behind, while Bove, Spegazzini and Domingo Lovisato (geologist) left for the south on 1 May, the first scientific expedition to visit the Beagle Channel since Darwin in 1833-34.
The itinerary given by Spegazzini (1883, b) was: 2 May, Voces Bay; 3, Hope Harbour, Clarence Island; 4-7, delayed at an unnamed bay below Mount Sarmiento; 7, Brecknock Peninsula, opposite London Island; 9, an islet near Basket Island; 10, Burnt Island; 11, the Fuegian coast opposite Chair Island; 12, Yendegaia Bay; 13-21, at the English Mission, Ushuaia; 21-24, west in the Beagle Channel to Yendegaia, then exploring the mouth of the Murray Channel and Aichina islet, and return to Ushuaia; 24-27, eastwards in the Beagle Channel with the Reverend Bridges calling at Samnacus, Vallamatu, and Picton Island; 28-31, in Sloggett Bay, where the San Jose went ashore in stormy weather. Fortunately Spegazzini's specimens from Patagonia, Staten Island, and the Straits of Magellan, had been left on the Cabo de Hornos; but in the shipwreck he lost all collections made on the southern trip. However he had saved his notebooks, and on the return voyage was able to replace, in great part, his lost specimens (Spegazzini, 1896). They were rescued by the ‘Allen Gardiner’, the cutter from the English Mission at Ushuaia, which took them back to Punta Arenas with landings on 18 June at Ialambaia; 20, at Onnyvaia; 21, Gordon Island; 25, Burnt Island; 26, Basket Island; 29, Port Tom, Melville Island; and 1 July, Punta Arenas. After collecting near the town Spegazzini and Lovisata left Punta Arenas on 9 July by the schooner San Pedro and collected at Cape Porpoise (10 July), Isabel Island (11), Gregory Bay (14) and Cape Possession (15). They rejoined the Cabo de Hornos at Santa Cruz on 25 July, and arrived at Buenos Aires on 3 September, 1882.
Spegazzini (1896) summarised his botanical collections in Tierra del Fuego (including Staten Island) as follows:
Phanerogams 293 species (C. Spegazzini, 1896)
Ferns 18 species (C. Spegazzini, 1896)
Lycopods 2 species (C. Spegazzini, 1896)
Mosses 74 species (C. Müller, 1885)
Liverworts 103 species (C. Massalongo, 1885)
Lichens 119 species (J. Müller, 1889 b)
Fungi 461 species (C. Spegazzini, 1887)
Algae 38 species (determined by F. Ardissone)
Spegazzini notes the algae as unpublished but Hariot (1892) quotes a paper by Ardissone (1888) dealing with Spegazzini's algae. Algal records are also given by Hariot (1892) and de Toni (1889). Spegazzini (1896) described 18 new species of flowering plants and listed only his own gatherings. Müller (1885) attempted a complete moss flora of Tierra del Fuego up to that time, and described 39 new species from Spegazzini's gatherings. Massalongo (1885) confined his observations to Spegazzini's gatherings which increased the liverwort flora of Tierra del Fuego from 95 to 152 species. The novelties included a new genus Pigafettoa, appropriately commemorating Antonio Pigafetta, an Italian gentleman who sailed as a volunteer with Magellan and wrote a history of the voyage. In the introduction to his paper on the lichens J. Müller (1889b) gives the following information (translated): ‘The lichens published here were sent to Europe in 3 collections by the famous and eminent Dr. Spegazzini, who in 1882 explored very strenuously and successfully this renowned region. The famous Dr. Jatta has the first collection, the celebrated Lojka and then the illustrious Dr. Nylander the second, and Dr. Spegazzini gave the third directly to me this year.’
‘Dr. Nylander published the second of these collections in his ‘Lichens of Fuegia and Patagonia’ in July of this year (the preface was written 1st November, 1887), where he listed 63 species (with 13 added from other collections) and described quite a number of new species considering the total number of species. But at almost the same time i.e. August 1888, in the ‘Mission Scientifique du Cap Horn’ I myself then listed 89 species from the same region, of which 25 new species in some cases were the same as those listed by Nylander and after a comparative study had been undertaken, had to be superseded by Nylander's species which rejoiced in about a month's priority. Other modifications arising partly from the laws of priority, partly from another method of classification are set forth in the following pages and at the same time determinations of lichens sent by the honourable Jatta and of those sent to me by the explorer himself.’
Spegazzini's herbarium is in the University of La Plata and includes the specimens from Tierra del Fuego.
The International Polar Investigation 1882-83
In May 1877, Count Wilczek and Dr. Karl Weyprecht (the Austro-Hungarian arctic explorer) published a suggested programme for an International Polar Expedition and this was discussed at the second International Meteorological Congress at Rome in April 1879. Here it was recommended that a committee meet in Hamburg on the following October to discuss the erection of a number of observatories in the arctic and antarctic regions to make simultaneous hourly meteorological and magnetic observations around the poles. The chairman of this committee was Dr. G. Neumayer, Director of the German Marine page 79 Observatory and there were representatives from Utrecht, Copenhagen, St. Petersburg, Paris, Christiana, Hamburg, Poland, Trieste and Lund. At the last session the committee constituted itself as the International Polar Commission with Neumayer as president and this commission met again in Bern in 1880 and St Petersburg in 1881 (Neumayer 1891). The expeditions were planned to coincide with the Transit of Venus on 6 December 1882 and the two in the Southern Hemisphere are relevant to our story. These were:—
France: Tierra del Fuego
Germany: South Georgia
Hyades, Hahn and Hariot: Tierra del Fuego 1882-83
The Romanche (Captain L.-F. Martial) left Cherbourg on 17 July, 1882, with orders to establish a base near Cape Horn for observations on astronomy, meteorology, and magnetism, to survey the coast of Tierra del Fuego, and to make biological collections. Martial chose Orange Bay on the Hardy Peninsula and anchored there on 6 September. The various prefabricated buildings, which housed a land party of 21, were erected in 45 days with the help of some 35 to 40 men each day (Martial, 1888). Of note was a photographic laboratory, apparently the first use of the new art by a southern expedition. Martial's narrative lists 323 photographs of which 58 were published in the expedition reports. Botanical collections during the first 8 months were made by the ship's doctors. Dr. Paul Hyades was based on shore and collected in the vicinity of Orange Bay, while Dr. Philippe Hahn accompanied the Romanche. They were later reinforced by M. Paul Hariot, botanical assistant at the Natural History Museum, Paris. The following is a summary of the Romanche's surveys based on the detailed information given by Martial.
28 October-30 November, 1882: to Punta Arenas via Good Success and Gregory Bays; return via Staten Island (Ports Cook, Basil-Hall and St. Jean), Good Success Bay, Picton Island (Banner Bay) and the Beagle Channel (Packewaia, Ushuaia).
14-26 December, 1882: south to Hermite Island (St. Martin's Cove), north to Maxwell Island, then through the Franklin Channel, and north to Grevy Island (Gretton Bay).
14-16 January, 1883: south to Lort Bay, Hardy Peninsula.
23 January-20 March, 1883: to Punta Arenas via Scotchwell Bay (Hardy Peninsula), Tekenika Bay, the Beagle Channel and the North-West Arm (Ushuaia, Lapataia, Yendegaia, Awaïakirh, Entrée Anchorage, Romanche Bay, Voilier Bay, Trois-Bras Bay), the Darwin Channel (Baleines Bay), Whaleboat Sound page 80 (Burnt Island), the Brecknock Passage (Camden Island), Cock-burn Channel (Willis Cove) and Straits of Magellan (Port Famine); returned via Gregory Bay, West Falkland Island (Port Edgar, White Rock Bay), East Falkland Island (Port Stanley, Berkeley Sound), Picton Island (Banner Bay), and Beagle Channel (Packewaia, Ushuaia, Lapataia).
28 March-1 May, 1883: south round False Cape Horn to explore New Year Sound from east around to west (Indian Bay, Naturalist Bay, Notre-Dame Cove, Chapeau Island, Claire Bay, Hahn Fiord, Doze Fiord, Coralie Cove, Louise Bay, and return to Indian Bay) then west and through the Talbot Channel (Angot anchorage), across Christmas Sound to Waterman Island (Port Clerke), and return through the south-west arm of the Beagle Channel (Fleuriais Bay) and Awaïakirh and Lapataia.
14 May-5 June, 1883: to Punta Arenas and return via the route outlined in (4). New anchorages were Eliza Bay (Cockburn Channel) and St Nicholas Bay (Straits of Magellan). Hariot had arrived at Punta Arenas on 1 May and whilst awaiting the Romanche spent two weeks visiting Dawson and Clarence Islands (Hariot, 1885).
18 June-2 July, 1883: south-east to Grevy Island (Gretton and Seagull Bays), Maxwell Island, Hermite Island (St. Martin's Cove), and Horn Island. Hariot went on the voyage, but remained at Orange Bay during July and August (Hariot, 1885).
7 July-20 August: surveying the south coast of Navarino Island (Goree Roads, Windhond Bay), Hardy Peninsula (Scotchwell Bay), Ponsonby Sound (Douglas Bay, 14 July Bay, Glacée Bay); visiting Ushuaia, Lapataia, Awaïakirh, then through S.W. Beagle Channel (Fleuriais Bay, Cascade Bay), and across Cook Bay to Franklin Channel (Angot Anchorage); south in the open sea to near the Ildefonso Islands, return to Lort Bay, then south to near Diego Ramirez Islands and return to Goree Roads, Sloggett Bay, Banner Bay, Chasseur Roads and Ushuaia.
The expedition left Orange Harbour on 3 September, returned to Punta Arenas by the usual Brecknock Passage route, and arrived home in November. After several preliminary papers the botanical results of the expedition appeared as the fifth volume (1889) of the expedition reports. As previously noted the collections of Savatier in 1877 and 1879 were first treated here, and a list of his collecting localities has already been given. The collecting localities of the 1882-83 expedition were only a fraction of the places visited and often there are only a few specimens from any one locality. Thus there were apparently page 81 no gatherings at the Falkland Islands. From Staten Island (in the absence of Hariot) they brought no cryptogams, and only seventeen species of flowering plants. Orange Harbour is, of course, well represented.
Algae: Hariot (1887a) described six new species, and in the main expedition report attempted a complete list of records from Tierra del Fuego. Of the 209 species several more were considered new (Hariot, 1889a).
Diatoms: Petit (1889) listed numerous species with several described as new.
Lichens: Hariot (1887 b) published notes on Cladonias with two new species. Müller (1889c) listed 89 species collected by the French with 25 new species and 16 new varieties. However there were complications over priorities as already noted when discussing Spegazzini's lichens (Müller, 1889b).
Fungi: Winter (1887) listed 16 species collected by Hariot, and 8 were considered new. Hariot (1889b) attempted a full list of fungi from Tierra del Fuego, and compiled 101 species.
Liverworts: The French collected 88 species according to Bescherelle and Massalongo (1889), with 12 species and 8 varieties considered new. The new taxa were described in the Bulletin de la Société linnéenne de Paris on 6 October and 4 November, 1886.
Mosses: C. Müller (1885) described new species collected by Savatier and the French expedition using either the unpublished names given by Bescherelle or reinterpreting Bescherelle's identifications. Slightly later, Bescherelle (1885) also described these, and other new species of mosses. The full report on the French mosses consisted of 78 species with additional novelties (Bescherelle, 1889).
Flowering Plants and Ferns: Hariot (1884) listed his own gatherings and gave general comments on the flora and vegetation. Franchet (1889) list 216 species (21 ferns) of which 14 were described as new. The collectors were Savatier, Hyades, Hahn, and Hariot, with a few specimens collected from Port Famine in 1850 by one Marivault.
H. Will: South Georgia, 1882-83
The German expedition to South Georgia left Hamburg on 3 June, 1882, by passenger vessel, and arrived at Montevideo on 4 July. The party was: Dr. K. Schrader (leader), Dr. P. Vogel, and Dr. O. Klaus (astronomers and physicists); Dr. Karl von den Steinen (medical officer and zoologist); Dr. Hermann Will (botanist and geological collections); E. Mosthaff (engineer and artist); and five others (mechanic, cook, carpenter, sailmaker, and handyman-boatman). At Montevideo the expedition transferred to the corvette S.M.S. Moltke (Captain Pirner), the German duty-ship from the west coast of South America, and on 23 July sailed for the island. South Georgia was sighted on 12 August, and for eight days in poor weather the Moltke page 82 sought a suitable harbour on the north-east coast. An attempted landing in Cumberland Bay was unsuccessful, and, with coal running low, the officers seriously discussed abandoning the quest and erecting the station on the Falkland Islands (Mosthaff and Will, 1884). But on 20 August they entered the spacious Royal Bay and on the northern shore at Moltke Harbour found some sheltered flat ground suitable for their purpose. Here, with the help of a 100 sailors, the stores, including 40 tons of coal, were landed. The snow was cleared and the wooden huts, the revolving iron dome for the Transit observations, and shelters for the instruments put up; and a stall built for their 3 cattle, 17 sheep, 6 goats and 3 kids. On 3 September everything was ship-shape. Captain Pirner hung a portrait of the Kaiser on the wall of the living room, ‘und brachte ein Hoch auf seine Majestat aus’, and soon the Moltke steamed slowly out of the bay to return on station via the Falkland Islands and the Straits of Magellan.
Throughout the following year, while the regular observations in meteorology, magnetism and astromony went on, the shores of Royal Bay and the outer coast to the north were explored. A regular collecting ground for plants was on the higher tongue of land which protected the camp to the north-east and formed the northern tip of Royal Bay. Another favourite locality was the Koppenberg a headland to the south of the station. The peaks behind the camp were climbed — the Brocken (700 m.), the Krokisiusberg (470 m.) the Pirnerberg (630 m.), the Nachbar (790 m.) and the Doppelspitze (739 m.) now called Krokisius (Greene, 1964), and the highest points found thickly covered with the lichen Neuropogon melaxanthus. The Brockenthal, between Krokisius and the Brocken, was followed to the head of the Forster Glacier which flowed northwards to the outer coast; and the Whalerthal, running from the head of Moltke Harbour between Krokisius and Pirner, lead to the head of the Nachtigal Glacier, down which the explorers often went to Little Harbour on the coast. Near the mouths of both glacial valleys the vegetation was luxuriant. The two great glaciers flowing into Royal Bay were often visited by boat. The Ross Glacier was climbed to 325 m. in an attempt to reach the main divide and the south-west coast; and the Weddel Glacier, a two-hour journey across the water, was still being visited as late as 5 June. Throughout the winter the Germans were able to move about, at least in Royal Bay. On 1 September the corvette Marie (Captain Krokisius) arrived in Moltke Harbour, and on 6 September, 1883, the expedition left the island. From Montevideo the Marie went on to relieve the Moltke and the scientists returned by various routes to Germany.
The expedition and the botanical collections were described in preliminary papers, and in the official volumes edited by Neumayer (1890, 1891). There are accounts of the voyage to and from the island and life on the station (Mosthaff, and Will, 1884; Neumayer, 1891) and a summary of the weather records (von Danckelman, 1884). The three descriptions of vegetation with notes on individual page 83 species have slightly different emphases (Mosthaff and Will, 1884; Will, 1887; Will, 1890). The annotated list of 13 flowering plants (Engler, 1886) was reprinted in Neumayer (1890) which also contained articles on ferns (Prantl, 3 sp); mosses (C. Müller, 52 sp.); liverworts (Gottsche, 11 sp.); lichens (J. Müller, 26 sp.); fresh water algae including diatoms (Reinsch, 74 sp.); and marine algae including diatoms (Reinsch, 84 sp.). Preliminary papers had contained descriptions of new genera and species of marine algae (Reinsch, 1888a, b), the anatomy of Macrocystis luxurians (Will, 1884), and new species of lichens (J. Müller, 1886). Thus, whereas all that was earlier known were the two or three species gathered by the Forsters, the German collections disclosed the essential characters of the flora of South Georgia, enabled Engler to note a close affinity with Tierra del Fuego, and Will (1887) to speculate on dispersal over the ocean to this lonely island.
W. E. Safford: Straits of Magellan and West Patagonian Channels, 1886
William Edwin Safford (1859-1926) graduated from the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, in 1880, and did post-graduate work in botany and zoology at Yale, 1883, and in marine zoology at Harvard, 1885 (Barnes, 1926; Humphrey, 1961). During a cruise to the Pacific he passed through the Straits of Magellan and the western channels in November-December 1886, gathering plants, including seaweeds, at Gregory Bay, Punta Arenas, Fortescue Bay, Port Tamar and in Smyth Channel (Safford, 1888 a). The specimens were sent to Dr. R. A. Philippi of Santiago who considered that there were 4 new species in the 78 collected (Safford, 1888b).
H. Rousson and P. Willems: Tierra del Fuego, 1890-91
Rousson and Willems (1892) note that ‘En 1890 et 1891, nous étions chargés d'une mission par M. le ministre de l'Instruction publique et des Beaux-Arts, pour explorer la Terre de Feu —’ and in the same paper give a map of their journeys. From Punta Arenas they went south by sea, rounded the Brecknock Peninsula, and sailed east through the Beagle Channel to Good Success Bay at the southeastern tip of Tierra del Fuego. Landing here they followed the Atlantic coast of Tierra del Fuego as far north as Cape Penas where they crossed the island to Useless Bay. More detailed exploration of the interior was confined to that part of the island north of a line connecting Sebastian and Useless Bays and they also published a map of this area (Willems and Rousson, 1891). Journeys were also made to Dawson Island and on the mainland north of Punta Arenas. Brief observations are given on geography, climate etc. and more particularly on the natives. With respect to plants they wrote: ‘Mais la mauvaise page 84 saison ne nous a pas permis de collectioner les plantes d'espèces assez intéressantes que nous allons rencontrer au sud en très grande quantité.’ However from their collections Hariot (1900) listed 118 flowering plants and 12 ferns and lycopods, and twenty-five of these were new records for Tierra del Fuego. In addition a Lathyrus and an orchid were possibly new species but the material was poor. No localities were given for this list. Hariot (1891) also listed 10 fungi, 12 lichens, 8 hepatics, 12 mosses, and 32 species of algae of which 8 were new for the region, and 2 (possibly 3) were new species. He stated that these ‘ont été presque toutes récoltées sur la côte atlantique dans le sud de la région Magellanique, aux environs de la baie Bon Success, de la baie Saint-Polycarpe et de False Cove.’
Hariot (1892) listed the new algal records made by Cuboni (de Toni and Levi) Rousson and Willems, Spegazzini, Naumann, Safford, and Marcacci, which were not included in his earlier list (1889a) to bring the total algae recorded from Tierra del Fuego to 257. He later listed a collection of 28 algae from the Straits of Magellan, the western channels, and the Beagle Channel. This collection was made by one Michaelsen, and given to a Professor Schmitz (Hariot, 1895).
After the visits by Lechler and Cunningham the main collectors during this period were residents of the island, and these are listed by Moore (1968). We can add that the times of receipt of some of these collections are given in the official reports of the Department of Botany in the British Museum, published annually in the Journal of Botany by W. Carruthers. Crié (1878) studied d'Urville's collections and claimed to have found several species including cryptogams hitherto overlooked. But his note gives no information on the specimens or their location, which would help later workers. Savatier (1889b) refers to some of the d'Urville specimens as in Crié's private herbarium.
At the time of publication of the Flora Antarctica the nature of the flora of some of the islands in the far south, such as Kerguelen, Auckland, Campbell, Falklands and Tierra del Fuego, was fairly well known. In the ensuing fifty years plant lists from these islands were gradually increased. There were some islands, however, such as Macquarie and South Georgia, for which Hooker could only quote a few species; but by the 1890's the basic floras of these islands were known; and during this period botanists set foot for the first time on Heard and Marion Islands. The unknown remained the Antarctic Continent and the islands fringing it, and botanical exploration here was to be a feature of the next period in our history, a period which also saw the rise of ecology and the beginning of vegetation studies in the far south.
I am very grateful to Mr. E. H. Leatham, lately Chief Librarian, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, for his interest in this work, and for his help in obtaining information.
The following corrections should be made in the first part of this series (Godley, 1965).
page 150, line 28 and footnote: change ‘Dusky Sound’ to ‘Doubtful Sound.’
Page 169, line 4: change ‘New York’ to ‘Norfolk, Virginia.’
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* The point may appear pedantic but it means the difference between a day's collecting or nothing at all.