Tuatara: Volume 15, Issue 3, December 1967
The Antarctic Research Programme of Victoria University of Wellington, 1957-67
The Antarctic Research Programme of Victoria University of Wellington, 1957-67
Participation In Antarctic Research by expeditions from V.U.W. began ten years ago, in 1957. Scott Base was established in December, 1956 to serve New Zealand's activities in connection with the Trans-Antarctic Expedition and the International Geophysical Year. In the winter of 1957, Fuchs was at his base by the Weddell Sea in readiness for his journey across the continent; Hillary was at Scott Base with the first New Zealand wintering-over party preparing for the considerable programmes planned for that group.
Back in New Zealand, interest in Antarctic matters was keen. But opportunities for participation in Antarctic research programmes were few. Dr. H. J. Harrington, of the N.Z. Geological Survey, was organising a Government geological and survey expedition, planning to man-haul up the Tucker Glacier, but no places were available for students.
It was, however, known that the Ross Sea Committee, then charged with the organisation of the New Zealand T.A.E. activities, and the Royal New Zealand Navy, were planning a summer cruise of the Ross Sea for H.M.N.Z.S. Endeavour, the elderly wooden supply vessel used for New Zealand Antarctic transport.
Money for clothing and equipment did not exist. Application to the N.Z.U. Research Committee for £100 produced only £50. Dr. J. Williams, Principal of V.U.C., provided another £50 from College funds. Some old World War II battledress of mine, and some other odds and ends completed the equipment, and the first Victoria University Expedition was on its way south.
From this point onwards McKelvey and Webb surpassed all expectations. They fitted in excellently on board Endeavour, and impressed the helpful Commander, Capt. H. Kirkwood. At Scott Base, their attitude towards hard work won them more friends. The intended Ross Sea cruise of Endeavour did not eventuate, but through the good offices of Dr R. Balham, Zoologist of the wintering-over party, an opportunity was made for one of the pair (they tossed, and Webb won) to join a biological trio of T.A.E. heading by U.S. helicopter to what is now named (after Victoria University) Victoria Valley. The first geological mapping of this ice-free valley system was carried out by Webb, and although the party was in the field for only ten days, he accomplished a considerable amount of work.page 104
Later, an opportunity arose (largely through Phil Smith, the U.S. Scientific Co-ordinator) for McKelvey and Webb to visit ice-free valleys in the vicinity of the upper part of the Taylor Glacier. Here, too, a great deal of unmapped territory was surveyed.
Webb and McKelvey left Antarctica in the last Globemaster to fly out, late in February, as the airstrip on the sea ice of McMurdo Sound broke up.
Their successes were such that recognition of the value of student participation in Antarctic Science was established. It is pleasing to record that the N.Z.U. Research Committee restored the cut £50.
Parts I and II of the V.U.W. Antarctic geological series were completed by the two students very quickly, and were published in 1959, among the first N.Z. geological publications of the new Antarctic area. This work won them the Hamilton Prize of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
The ice-free valleys of the McMurdo region were obviously worth further investigation, and so another expedition was planned for the following summer, 1958-59. At this time Dr. Colin Bull3 was a senior lecturer in the Physics Department. Bull, geophysicist and glaciologist, had been prominent in the British North Greenland Expedition a few years previously, and was an ideal leader for the expedition. R. Barwick4 junior lecturer in the Zoology Department, had been a summer scientist at Scott Base with the T.A.E. group, and had been with Webb to Victoria Valley. He acted as deputy leader of the expedition, which had as its other members McKelvey and Webb.
Dr. Bull, experienced in planning University expeditions in Britain, sought donations of equipment and finance from various Wellington and other business films. Response was generous, and little other finance was necessary. It was planned to carry out geological, geophysical and biological investigations and topographic surveying work in the Wright Valley, south of Victoria Valley.
It is, in retrospect, of interest to note that despite the strength of the expedition members, the lack of need for funds, and the clear importance of the scientific objectives, this expedition experienced difficulties when official approval was sought. In 1958 the Ross Sea Committee ceased executive functions and New Zealand Antarctic Research was controlled by a newly constituted Ministerial Committee, the Ross Dependency Research Committee, and from that page 105 time onward the approval of R.D.R.C. was necessary in order for any expedition to proceed.
Initial difficulties with the University's application led to considerable argument. The problems resulting from technicalities and misunderstandings were later cleared up. To Dr. Hatherton, a good friend of the University's Antarctic ventures and a member of the Committee, we owe much for the help he gave us in overcoming obstacles which might otherwise have terminated our activities as an independent unit in New Zealand's Antarctic Research programme. Since this time, we have enjoyed the strong support of R.D.R.C. in all our activities.
The programme in the Wright Valley was successful, as study of the publications (a list is appended to this article) will show. Bull caried out a gravity survey from the coast, over the Wilson Piedmont Glacier, and up the valley towards its head. Barwick extended his biological investigations, and McKelvey and Webb made a geological survey of this large ice-free valley. Dolerite samples collected for paleomagnetic work, subsequently worked on by Bull and Irving at Canberra, produced data of importance in paleogeography.
Early in 1959, it was thought worthwhile to continue the work. It was decided to formalise planning and organisation of future Victoria University Expeditions by means of a Committee, and there was set up by the Professional Board the Antarctic Research Committee. Its members were C. B. B. Bull. R. Barwick and R. H. Clark (Convener). For the third venture, it was decided to complete the geological surveys begun by Webb and McKelvey of the large Victoria Valley system, carry out some topographic survey work, and continue biological studies.
Dr. R. W. Balham had by this time joined the staff of the Zoology Department, and was the obvious choice for Leader. Mr. R. H. Wheeler of the Geography Department became Deputy Leader. Student participants were Tony Allen5 and Graham Gibson6, geologists, and Ian Willis7, geologist and geophysics collector.
(It may be remarked in passing that attempts were made, without success, to include a woman member in this expedition. The girl concerned, a sound field worker, was very keen to go).
The expedition was in the field from November to early February. Again, all objectives were achieved. It is pleasant to record that, as with the previous expedition, substantial contributions to the venture came from business firms as well as from official sources.page 106
Plans for the next season's activities advanced rapidly during the early part of 1960. Ralph Wheeler was appointed leader of the next expedition, which was scheduled to examine and map the geology of the Koettlitz ice-free margin. This extensive area, about the size of the Wairarapa Valley, almost entirely free of ice, had appeared ideal for a University expedition when reconnoitred from the air by the writer early the previous season.
Other members of this party were Ian Willis, Roger Cooper8, and Dick Blank9. Dr Blank, an American N.S.F. Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, had come to V.U.W. to carry out a research programme on ignimbrites. With his excellent geological background and rugged physique he proved a useful member of the team. Dr Bull carried out gravity work in the area, working mainly detached from the main party which covered a large expanse of complex basement geology, ultimately producing one of the most detailed geological maps yet drawn of a part of Antarctica.
Ralph Wheeler referred to his party, for convenience, as “VUWAE” (V.U.W. Antarctic Expedition). The term was useful, and as this was the fourth expedition it became known as VUWAE 4, the earlier parties then being numbered appropriately for reference.
Publications of the results of VUWAE 4, when added to the published work of VUWAEs 1, 2 and 3, largely completed reconnaissance geological mapping of the large (2,000 sq. miles) ice-free area between the Koettlitz and Mackay Glaciers. Only the lower Taylor had not been covered by V.U.W. parties.
Early Specialist Research
The following winter, the V.U.W. Antarctic Research Committee took up a suggestion by Dr. Bull, by that time at Ohio State University. This proposal involved a break with the by now traditional largely student geological surveying teams, as it involved a highly specialised problem. On VUWAE 2. Dr. Bull and his party had seen and named Lake Vanda in the Wright Valley. Vanda has a 12 ft. ice cover; with no ice drill, Bull had been unable to penetrate this cover but he noted the lake looked “odd”, and had estimated its depth from his gravity results. He recommended it to some Americans in search of algae; they drilled the ice cover and found their algae. They also found the bottom waters were saline and warm, and concluded that the heat was of geothermal origin.
After this specialised venture, it was thought by the Committee that opportunity existed for a further expedition of the earlier type. So for the summer of 1962-63 we planned VUWAE 6, for the Brown Hills and Darwin Mountains areas, about 200 miles south of the Koettlitz, reconnoitred from the air by Ralph Wheeler and the writer the previous summer and judged suitable for student work.
An innovation was the appointment of a student as leader—Ian Willis, by now an M.Sc. student and veteran of VUWAEs 3 page 108 and 4. Other members were Tom Haskell12, Warwick Prebble13, Jim Kennett14, G. I. Smith15, and one older member, Dr. Charles Rich16. Dr. Rich, for several years an American research student at Victoria, was at that time an instructor at Bowling Green State University, Ohio, and accepted with alacrity an invitation to join the expedition as geomorphologist. It was very pleasant to once more have an American member of a VUWAE, and Dr. Rich proved to be a congenial and useful expedition member.
After mapping the Brown Hills—a fairly limited area—the expedition crossed the Darwin Glacier to the Darwin Mountains. Crevasse conditions were such that the party crossed in a U.S.N. R.4D aircraft. Following work in the Darwins, the party returned to Scott Base with some time still in hand. This time they spent very profitably in the Taylor Valley, thus completing the geological survey of McMurdo Oasis begun by McKelvey and Webb five years previously.
VUWAE 6 was, however, not the only Victoria University expedition of the 1962/63 summer. The work of Wellman and Wilson on Lake Vanda had been of interest to New Zealand physicist, both at V.U.W. and D.S.I.R. Other Lakes in the Taylor Valley appeared of interest, and so a small three-man party, led by T. Shirtcliffe of the Physics Department, V.U.W., and including R. F. Benseman of D.S.I.R. and Bruce Popplewell17, a V.U.W. Chemistry student, was formed to study Lake Bonney. Transport problems resulted in rather early withdrawal of this group, now known as VUWAE 7, from the lake, but not before useful measurements had been made.
A New Expedition Pattern
By the autumn of 1963 evaluation of data from Lakes Vanda and Bonney had progressed to a stage when it was apparent that further work on these and other lakes was of prime importance. Accordingly VUWAE 8 was planned for this end.
W. Prebble, a veteran of VUWAE 6, was appointed Leader. The expedition operated in two phases—for the first phase, mainly in the Taylor Valley, Professor A. T. Wilson was scientific leader. Following Wilson's return to New Zealand in late December, Professor H. W. Wellman became scientific leader. Other expedition page 109 members were Ray Hoare, of the Physics Department and Bob Henderson18 (Geology), Don House19 and Bruce Popplewell (both of Chemistry.
Lakes studied included Fryxell, Chad, Bonney, Hoare, House and Joyce in the Taylor Valley; Vanda, Canopus and Don Juan in the Wright Valley; and Webb, Vashka and Vida in the Victoria Valley system. In addition, some geological observations were made and a reconnaissance flown to examine White and Black Islands and Brown Peninsula with a view to a future expedition.
Wilson and House spent a week at South Pole Station studying chemical composition of polar snow to ascertain how much atmospheric nitrogen was fixed by auroral activity, and also to examine micrometeorite content of the ice-cap.
Planning of VUWAE 9, for the following summer, presented some problems. The reconnaissance by members of VUWAE 8 suggested that a period of several weeks could be spent with profit on Black and White Islands south of Scott Base, and on Brown Peninsula. It was clear that the studies should be multi-disciplinary, and, further, would not involve a whole season. Certain other problems, including the question of possible mineralisation in the Koettlitz area, could be tackled by the expedition. Accordingly a complex and highly specialised expedition was assembled. Warwick Prebble, now an M.Sc. student, was again appointed Leader, and two other research students became members for the entire season. They were Alan Baker, biologist, whose task was to collect and study algae; and Robin Bell20, physicist, who, equipped with a device known as a geochrone, was able to undertake sub-surface studies.
For phase I, the period on the islands and peninsula, scientific leader was Dr. P. Vella21. Other members of this phase were Ray Hoare, of VUWAE 8, detached to do more work on Lake Vanda, Jim Cole22 and Alec Frame (Technician). For a short time Dr. A. Ewart of the N.Z. Geological Survey worked with this group.
During phase II, Professor J. Bradley was scientific leader, and members were Dr. D. Zimmerman, of the University of Auckland (economic geologist), Fred Schafer (Technician), and Don Palmer23, an American Fulbright scholar then studying at V.U.W.
Some very interesting results emerged from the work of this expedition, both on Quaternary history of the Ross Sea area and on petrological details of basement rocks of the dry valleys.
Like its predecessors, this expedition achieved its objectives, numerous and complex as these were.page 110
The work of all VUWAE personnel has been creditable but special mention might be made here of Warwick Prebble. This had been his third successive summer in Antarctica and his second as Expedition Leader. Leadership of expeditions which included as members persons such as those listed above was no small task for a research student. Much credit must go to Prebble for the success, smoothness and safety of the operations of VUWAEs 8 and 9.
When the V.U.W. Antarctic Research Committee (now consisting of R. W. Balham, R. H. Wheeler, D. W. Walker, H. W. Wellman, A. T. Wilson, and R. H. Clark (convener) considered the programme for the following season, 1965-66, a smaller operation appeared desirable. Clearly it would take some time to digest the data obtained by VUWAE 9, and during earlier operations some small areas and special problems had been noted as suitable for future effort.
One such had been Inexpressible Island, well north of the Dry Valleys, and, with nearby ice-free areas, presenting a well exposed but small region of the basement. Dr. Ed Ghent24, an American petrologist then a lecturer of V.U.W., was interested in Antarctic petrology, so VUWAE 10 was formed primarily to undertake detailed petrological study of Inexpressible Island, and later to carried out detailed work in the Dry Valleys. Bob Henderson of VUWAE 8, as deputy leader, provided necessary Antarctic experience; other members were Graham Hancox25 and Ian Smith26.
Owing to transport problems, VUWAE 10 never reached Inexpressible Island. Hence the secondary objectives became primary, and petrological studies were undertaken in the Taylor Valley near Lake Bonney and Mt. Falconer, and in Victoria Valley, with collections of specimens for refined laboratory analyses which are still proceeding.
VUWAE 11, in the summer of 1966/67, consisted of three distinct groups, with quite different objectives. Professor Wellman, Leader, and Andrew Duncan were concerned with current geological processes operating in the Wright Valley, especially the role of salts. Ian Smith and Vince Neall undertook petrological and structural work on Nussbaum Riegel, Taylor Valley. The third group, a geophysics team comprising Dr. D. A. Christoffel and Ian Calhaem, carried out heat flow measurements in McMurdo Sound.
At the time of writing, July 1967, VUWAE 12 is planned for next summer. Three small, detached parties will carry out widely different specialised tasks, geological, geochemical and geophysical.
The character of Victoria University Antarctic work has changed, and is still changing. Personally I regret the passing of basic geological mapping by teams, mainly students, operating in the ice-free areas. VUWAEs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 were of this type. Good scientific returns and excellent experience for all participants resulted from this type of expedition.
Unfortunately ice-free areas are limited, and none of reasonable size remain to be covered in the Ross Dependency. Beginning with VUWAE 5, specialisation developed. VUWAEs 7 and 8 were highly specialised limnological expeditions; VUWAE 10 specialised in detailed petrology. The results of these have been well worth while, but they did not provide quite as much scope for individual student initiative and variety of experience as the earlier parties.
We are now tending towards fragmentation as well as specialisation. The main aims of VUWAEs 9 and 12, and to a lesser extent VUWAE 11, exemplify this tendency. This, too, is inevitable—there are many promising trails. Pressures of very widely differing interests are involved in our work, but there are few in each group. Hence it follows that our best use of our scientific resources at the present time involves us in divergence in specialised aspects of Antarctic Science.
Many persons and organisations have aided and encouraged our efforts. Without the logistic support of the R.N.Z.N., the U.S.N. (VX 6) and the U.S.A.F., the work could not have been done. We have received funds from many sources—the U.G.C. Research Committee, and its predecessor, the U.N.Z. Research Committee; the Council of V.U.W. (formerly V.U.C.); from D.S.I.R.; from N.S.F. of the United States; from the J. R. McKenzie Trust and many business firms which have contributed stores and equipment; and from an old friend of many VUWAEs, Mr. Eric Gibbs. It is a pleasure to acknowledge this assistance. Many individuals have actively helped and encouraged us—in the very early days Dr. J. Williams of V.U.W. (then V.U.C.), Dr. E. I. Robertson and Dr. T. Hatherton, of D.S.I.R.; a little later, Dr. R. Simmers, then Chairman of R.D.R.C., and other members of the Committee. The two Superintendents of Antarctic Division—Mr. G. Markham and his successor, Mr R. Thompson—have been of the greatest assistance to us, as have all members of Antarctic Division staff. We have always enjoyed our association with Scott Base Staff too, and have had their whole-hearted support.
Members of the Victoria University Antarctic Expeditions
|B. C. McKelvey||Geologist|
|P. N. Webb||Geologist|
|C. B. B. Bull (Leader)||Physicist||R. Barwick (Deputy Leader)||Biologist||B. C. McKelvey||Geologist||P. N. Webb||Geologist|
|R. W. Balham (Leader)||Biologist|
|R. H. Wheeler (Deputy Leader)||Geographer|
|A. D. Allen||Geologist|
|I. A. G. Willis||Geologist & Geophysicist|
|R. H. Wheeler (Leader)||Geographer|
|H. R. Blank (Deputy Leader)||Geologist|
|C. B. B. Bull||Physicist|
|I. A. G. Willis||Geologist|
|H. W. Wellman||Geologist|
|A. T. Wilson||Chemist|
|I. A. G. Willis (Leader)||Geologist|
|C. C. Rich (Deputy Leader)||Geologist|
|G. J. Smith||Geologist & Chemist|
|T. Shirtcliffe (Leader)||Physicist|
|R. F. Benseman||Physicist|
|K. B. Popplewell||Chemist|
|W. Prebble (Leader)||Geologist|
|A. T. Wilson (Scientific Leader, 1st Phase)||Chemist|
|H. W. Wellman, (Scientific Leader, 2nd Phase)||Geologist|
|R. A. Henderson||Geologist|
|D. A. House||Chemist|
|K. B. Popplewell||Chemist|
|W. Prebble (Leader)||Geologist|
|P. P. Vella (Scientific Leader)||Geologist|
|J. Bradley (Scientific Leader)||Geologist|
|D. Zimmerman||Economic Geologist|
|A. Baker (Deputy Leader)||Biologist|
|E. Ghent (Leader)||Geologist|
|R. A. Henderson (Deputy Leader)||Geologist|
|H. W. Wellman (Leader)||Geologist|
|D. A. Christoffel (Geophysics team leader)|
|I. M. Calheim||Geophysics|
|H. W. Wellman (Expedition Leader and Leader of Geological Group)|
|A. T. Wilson (Leader of Chemistry Group)|
|I. Calheim (Leader of Geophysics Group)|
|W. J. Cousins||Geophysicist|
Other V.U.W. groups which have operated in Antaretica include the following:—
1959 Reconnaissance of Mackay and Koettlitz Glacier areas — R. H. Clark and C. B. B. Bull.
1961 Reconnaissance of Brown Hills/Darwin Glacier area — R. H. Clark and R. H. Wheeler.
1962 Work on Ross Island — H. W. Wellman.
Antarctic Publications of V.U.W.
Webb, P. N. and McKelvey, B. C., 1959. Geological Investigations in South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Pt. 1 — Geology of Victoria Dry Valley. N.Z.J. Geol. Geophys. 2: 120-136.
MsKelvey, B. C. and Webb, P. N., 1959. Geological Investigations in South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Pt. II — Geology of Upper Taylor Glacier Region. N.Z.J. Geol. Geophys. 2: 718-728.
Bull, C. and Irving, E., 1960. The Paleomagnetism of some Hypabyssal Intrusive Rocks from South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Geophys. Jour. Roy. Astron. Soc., Vol. 3, No. 2: 211-224.
Bull C., 1960. Gravity Observations in the Wright Valley Area, Victoria Land, Antarctica. N.Z.J. Geol. Geophys. 3: 543-52.
McKelvey, B. C. and Webb, P. N., 1961. Geological Reconnaissance in Victoria Land, Antarctica. Nature. Vol. 189, No. 4764: 545-547.
Clark, R. H., 1960. Geological Work in Antarctic Dry Valleys. Report of International Geological Congress XXI Session, Norden, 1960, Pt. XXI.
McKelvey, B. C. and Webb, P. N., 1962. Geological Investigations in Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Pt. 3 — Geology of Wright Valley N.Z.J. Geol. Geophys. 5: 143-62.
Bull, C., Irving, E. and Willis, I., 1962. Further Palaeomagnetic Results from South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Geophys. Jour. Roy. Astron. Soc., Vol. 6, No. 3: 320-336.
Allen, A. D. and Gibson, G. W., 1962. Geological Investigations in Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Part 6 — Outline of the Geology of the Victoria Valley Region. N.Z.J. Geol. Geophys., Vol. 5, No. 2: 234-242.
Allen, A. D., 1962. Geological Investigations in Southern Victoria land, Antarctica. Part 7 — Formations of the Beacon Group in the Victoria Valley Region. N.Z.J. Geol. Geophys., Vol. 5, No. 2: 278-294.
Bull, C., McKelvey, B. C. and Webb, P. N., 1962. Quaternary Glaciations in Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Jour. Glaciology, Vol. 4, No. 31: 63-78.
Gibson, G. W., 1967. Geological Investigations in South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Part 8 — Evaporite Salts in the Victoria Valley Region. N.Z.J. Geol. Geophys. 5, No. 3: 361-74.
Johannesson, J. K. and Gibson, G. W., 1962. Nitrate and Iodate in Antarctic Salt Deposits. Nature, Vol. 194, No. 4828: 567-68.
Bull, C., 1962. Gravity Observations in the Koettlitz Glacier Area, Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. N.Z.J. Geol. Geophys., Vol. 5, No. 5: 810-19.
Wilson, T. A. and Wellman, H. W., 1962. Lake Vanda: an Antarctic Lake. Nature, Vol. 196, No. 4860: 1171-1173.
Wellman, H. W., 1963. Sponge Spicule Pebbles at Hut Point Peninsula. Antarctic. Nature, Vol. 197 No. 4868: p. 681.
Blank, H. R., Cooper. R. A., Wheeler, R. H., and Willis, I. A. G., 1963. Geology of the Koettlitz — Blue Glacier Region, Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., Vol. 2, No. 5: 79-100.
Webb, P. N., 1963. Geological Investigations in Southern Victoria Land. Antarctica. Part 4 — Beacon Group of the Wright Valley and Taylor Glacier Region. N.Z.J. Geol. Geophys. 6, 361-387.
Wellman, H. W., 1964. Later Geological History of Hut Point Peninsula, Antarctica. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., Vol. 2, No. 10: 147-154.
Haskell, T. R., 1964. Thermal Metamorphism of Beacon Group Sandstone of the Taylor Valley, Antarctica. Nature, Vol. 201, No. 4922: p. 910.
Clark, R. H., 1964. The Oases in the Ice. Antarctic, pp. 321-330.
Hoare, Popplewell, House, Henderson, Prebble and Wilson, 1964. Lake Bonney, Taylor Valley, Antarctica: a Natural Solar Energy Tray. Nature, Vol. 202, No. 9435: pp. 886-888.
Haskell, T. R., Kennett, J. P., Prebble, W. M., Smith, G., and Willis, I. A. G., 1964. The Geology of the Middle and Lower Taylor Valley of South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z. Vol. 2, No. 12: pp. 169-186.
Haskell, T. R., Kennett, J. P., and Prebble, W. M., 1964. Geology of the Brown Hills and Darwin Mountains, Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z. Vol. 2, No. 15: pp. 231-248.
Haskell. T. R., Kennett, J. P., and Prebble, W. M., 1964. Basement and Sedimentary Geology of the Darwin Glacier Area, East Antarctica. SCAR (S.A.).
Hoare, R. A., Popplewell, K. B., House, D. A., Henderson, R. A., Prebble, W. M., and Wilson, A. T., 1965. Solar Heating of Lake Fryxell, a permantly ice-covered Antarctic Lake. Jour. Geophys. Research, Vol. 70, No. 6: pp. 1555-1558.
Smith, G. J., 1965. Evaporite Salts from the Dry Valleys of Victoria Land Antarctica (letter). N.Z.J. Geol. Geophys., Vol. 8, No. 2: pp. 381-382.
Clark, R. H., 1965. Investigations in the Koettlitz and Surrounding Areas. Bulletin of the U.S. Antarctic Projects Officer, Vol. VI, No. 7: pp. 71-72.
Wilson, A. T., 1964. Origin of the Ice Ages: An Ice Shelf Theory for Pleistocene Glaciation. Nature 201: 147.
Wilson, A. T., 1964. Evidence from Chemical Diffusion of a Climatic Change in the McMurdo Dry Valleys 1,200 years ago. Nature 201: 176.
Wilson, A. T., and Heine, A. J., 1964. The Chemistry of Ice-Shelf Brines. J. of Glaciology 5: 265.
Wilson, A. T. and House, D. A., 1965. Fixation of Nitrogen by Aurora and its contribution to the Nitrogen Balance of the Earth. Nature 205: 793.
Wilson, A. T., 1965. Geochemical Studies in the Antarctic. Polar Record.
Wilson, A. T., 1965. Escape of Algae from Frozen Lakes and Ponds. Ecology, Vol. 40, No. 3:
Shirtcliffe, T. G. L. and Bensemann, R. F., 1964. A Sun-heateo Antarctic Lake, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 69, No. 16: 3355-3359.
Bell, R. A. I. and Heine, A. J., 1965. Seismic Refraction Measurements on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Jour. Glaciology, Vol. 5, No. 42: pp. 880-881.
Shirtcliffe, T. G. L., 1965. Lake Bonney, Antarctica: Cause of the Elevated Temperatures. Jour. Geophys. Research, Vol. 69, No. 24: pp. 5257-5268.
Wilson, A. T. and House, D. A., 1965. Chemical Composition of South Polar Snow. Journ. Geophys. Res., Vol 70 No. 22: pp. 5515-5518.
Henderson, R. A., Prebble, W. M., Hoare, R. A., Popplewell, K. B., House, D. A. and Wilson, A. T., 1966. An Ablation Rate for Lake Fryxell, Victoria Land, Antarctica. Jour. Glaciology, Vol. 6 No. 43: pp. 129-133.
Wilson, A. T., 1966. Variation in Solar Isolation to the South Polar Region as a Trigger which induces instability in the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Nature, Vol 210, No. 5035: pp. 477-478.
Hoare, R. A., 1966. Problems of Heat Transfer in Lake Vanda, a Density Stratified Antarctic Lake. Nature, Vol. 210, No. 5038: pp. 787-789.
Bell, Robin A., 1966. A Seismic Reconnaissance in the McMurdo Sound Region, Antarctica. Jour. Glaciology, Vol. 6, No. 44: pp. 209-221.
House, D. A., Hoare, R. A., Popplewell, K. B., Henderson, R. A., Prebble, W. M. and Wilson, A. T., 1966. Chemistry in the Antarctic. Jour. Chem. Educ., Vol. 43: p. 502.
Boswell, C. R., Brooks, R. R. and Wilson, A. T., 1967. Trace Element Content of Antarctic Lakes. Nature, Vol. 213, No. 5072: pp. 167-168.
Bradley, J. and Palmer, D. F., 1967. Ice-cored Moraines and Ice Diapirs, Lake Miers, Victoria Land, Antarctica. N.Z.J. Geol,. Geophys., Vol. 10, No. 2: pp. 599-623.page break
1 Now Dr. B. C. McKelvey, Lecturer in Geology, University of New England, Armidale, N.S.W.
2 Now Dr. P. N. Webb, Geologist, N.Z. Geological Survey, Lower Hutt.
3 4 Now Professor C. B. B. Bull, Director, Polar Research Institute. Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
4 Now Lecturer in Zoology, Australian National University, Canberra.
5 Now on Ph.D. Research at Imperial College, London.
7 Now Dr. I. A. G. Willis, Petroleum Development (Oman) Ltd., Doha Qatar, Arabian Gulf.
8 Now Ph.D. student, Victoria University.
9 Dr. H. R. Blank, U.S.G.S., Menlo Park, California.
10 Now Associate Professor of Geology, V.U.W.
11 Now Associate Professor of Chemistry, V.U.W.
12 Now Demonstrator in Geology, University of Queensland.
13 Now at N.Z. Geological Survey.
15 Now in Department of Agriculture, Palmerston North.
16 Now Professor C. C. Rich, Bowling Green State University.
17 K. B. Popplewell, Patents Office, Justice Department.
18 Now Dr. R. A. Henderson, Geology Department, Harvard University.
20 Now Ph.D. student at Physics Department, Oxford University.
21 Now Associate Professor of Geology, V.U.W.
22 Now Dr. J. Cole, Lecturer in Geology, V.U.W.
23 Now at Geology Department, Princeton University.
24 Now Professor E. Ghent, Geology Department, University of Calgary.
25 Demonstrator in Geology, V.U.W.
26 Now at B.M.R., Rabaul.