Tuatara: Volume 12, Issue 3, November 1964
Revised Key to the Moss Genera in New Zealand
Revised Key to the Moss Genera in New Zealand
This Key includes all the 175 moss genera known to grow in New Zealand, whether native or introduced and is based on Sainsbury's Handbook of the New Zealand Mosses, published as Bulletin No. 5 by the Royal Society of New Zealand in 1955. This excellent manual gives full descriptions of all our native mosses and mentions the introduced species and should be consulted by users of this key. Two lapses in it, however, should be mentioned: on page 23, line 6 from the bottom should have the ‘not’ deleted from before ‘penetrating’ and figure 1, plate 74 on page 459 represents Rhacopilum strumiferum, not Ctenidium pubescens as stated. For descriptions of some New Zealand mosses published since 1955 see Allison (1960, 1963).
The Handbook gives a conspectus of the classification of our mosses, showing the disposition of the genera into Families. Orders, Clans and Classes and as well, descriptions of all these divisions have been included in the text, so it has not been considered necessary to repeat them here.
Notes following this key give information about two genera added to our flora since the Handbook was published and information on other genera. Genera so discussed are marked with an asterisk in the key.
I am grateful to Dr. G. A. M. Scott, of Otago University, for constructive criticism of the Key and for some corrections.
|1||Gametophyte a very small bulb of leaves from a persistent protonema||— 2|
|Gametophyte normal and leafy, growing from a protonema which soon disappears||— 3|
|2||Protonema extensive, brownish, growing on bark or twigs; resembling an alga. About 2mm. high||Ephemeropsis|
|Protonema sparse, on earth or rock. Seta about 2cm. high||Buxbaumia page 158|
|3||Branch-leaf cells of two kinds—long narrow chlorophyllose cells anastomosing to mark off large hyaline cells with spiral thickenings which may partly or wholly enclose the chlorophyllose cells. Whitish or greenish-white plants in bogs or on wet ground.||Sphagnum|
|Leaf-cells of two kinds — small median cells are totally enclosed by at least one layer above and one layer below of large hyaline cells except for a few rows at the margin. Leaves sometimes in 5 distinct rows. Forms whitish or whitish-green cushions on earth, logs or roots.||Leucobryum|
|Leaf cells never so arranged||— 4|
|4||Capsules opening by 4 longitudinal slits in the walls. Forming small blackish or reddish patches on montane rocks or sometimes longer and brownish on wet rocks or submerged in mountain streams.||Andreaea|
|Capsules never opening by regular lateral slits||— 5|
|5||Leaves distichously inserted||— 6|
|Leaves inserted in 3 or more rows on the stem (but may be flattened into one plane, i.e. complanate)||— 12|
|6||Leaf base double and vaginant on the upper side; on earth||Fissidens|
|Leaf base not doubled||— 7|
|7||Leaves vaginant owing to the folding together of the two halves of the leaves||— 8|
|Leaves flat or merely concave||— 9|
|8||Light green colour; leaves acute with short recurved mucro. On earth or rock||Catagonium|
|Leaves with a metallic sheen, obtuse. On bark||Orthorrhynchium|
|9||Leaves oblong, longly piliferous and crenulate: seta lateral. On tree fern trunks. (Leaves more usually multifarious)||Hymenodon p.p.|
|Leaves not piliferous||— 10|
|10||Leaves vertically inserted and decurrent down the stem||Mittenia|
|Leaves not decurrent||— 11|
|11||Leaf base sheathing; margins entire||Distichium|
|Leaf base not sheathing; margins dentate or thickened||Rhizogonium p.p.|
|12||Leaves clearly inserted in 3(-5) rows on the stem||— 13|
|Leaves not in obvious rows||— 20page 159|
|13||Leaves all similar, in 3 spiral rows||— 14|
|Leaves all similar, in 5 rows||Conostomum p.p.|
|Leaves not spirally aranged; one row usually of different size and shape||— 15|
|14||Leaves unaltered when dry, conspicuously tristichous; papillae high, most bifid||Triquetrella|
|Leaves twisted round the stem when dry, obscurely tristichous; papillae low, unbranched||*Anomodon|
|15||Two rows (simulating one row) of leaves on the upper stem face; two lateral rows. Seta lateral||Rhacopilum|
|Third row of leaves on the underside of the stem||— 16|
|16||Leaves strikingly ciliate and hence hoary. Stems and branches with bristles.||Catharomnion|
|Leaves not ciliate||— 17|
|17||Robust (usually 4-10 cm. high); unbranched or rarely forked, with capsules hidden on under side of fronds. Leaves dentate above.||Cyathophorum|
|Branched plants or if not. then smaller with terminal seta and entire leaves||— 18|
|18||Seta terminal; leaf margins neither dentate nor bordered||Calomnion|
|Seta lateral; leaf margins bordered and dentate||— 19|
|19||Stems erect, pinnately branched from the base. Nerve almost reaching the apex or excurrent. Seta papillose||Lopidium|
|Branches crowded together at the stem apex in a flabellate or umbrella-like manner. Nerve shorter. Seta smooth||Hypopterygium|
|20||Leaves bearing gemmae on part at least of the upper face of nerve, or else young leaves shed the nerve-ending as a gemma||— 21|
|Leaves without gemmae||— 24|
|21||Gemmae in the form of filaments; very small and rare plants||— 22|
|Gemmae more or less rounded clumps of cells||— 23|
|22||Leaf margins reflexed. Filaments on only the upper part of the nerve||Crossidium|
|Leaf margin widely involute; filaments covering most of the nerve and lamina||Aloina page 160|
|23||Leaves oblong-lanceolate or elliptic; bordered||Calyptopogon|
|Leaves obovate or spathulate; not bordered||Tortula p.p.|
|24||Leaves strongly rugose or undulate||— 25|
|Leaves not so or only at the margin||— 27|
|25||Leaves large, 6-10 mm. long||Eucamptodon|
|Leaves shorter, to 3 mm. long||— 26|
|26||Leaves prolonged into a short or long hair point; leaves not spreading complanately||Lepyrodon p.p.|
|Leaves obtuse or acute but without hair point; leaves complanate||Neckera p.p.|
|27||Upper surface of nerve at least, and often much of lamina covered with longitudinal lamellae||— 28|
|No lamellae on nerve or upper leaf face||— 34|
|28||Our tallest moss; erect unbranched. 30-40 cm. high with leaves 20-35 mm. long||Dawsonia|
|May be nearly as tall or much shorter with a simple trunk dendroidly branched above; leaves 5-12 mm. long||Dendroligotrichum|
|Smaller plants, simple OF sparingly branched. Peristome teeth short with a circular membrane stretching between their tips||— 29|
|29||Lamellae few (3-10) or very indistinct||— 30|
|Lamellae more numerous||— 31|
|30||Leaves unbordered, entire||Oligotrichum|
|Leaves bordered, spinose-dentate||Atrichum|
|31||Calyptra naked or nearly so||— 32|
|Calyptra densely hairy||— 33|
|Capsule 2-angled, the upper side concave, the lower side rounded||Polytrichadelphus|
|33||Capsule terete, without apophysis or stomata||Pogonatum|
|Capsule angled (except in P. alpinum), with apophysis and stomata||Polytrichum|
|34||Leaves with long hyaline points or with the nerve excurrent in a hair point||— 35page 161|
|Leaves without hyaline or hair points||— 57|
|35||Nerve reaching at least ¾ way up the leaf||— 43|
|Nerve none or reaching less than ¾ way up the leaf||— 36|
|36||Nerve none or short and double||— 39|
|Nerve single and reaching 1/3-1/2 way up the leaf||— 37|
|37||Leaves about 1 mm. long from a widened amplexicaul base tapered to a long point.* Genus doubtful but referred to the Fabroniaceae|
|Leaves ovate to lanceolate||— 38|
|38||Leaves 1.5 mm. long; margins entire||Ischyrodon|
|Leaves 0.40-0.75 mm. long; margins almost entire to very serrate||Fabronia|
|39||Leaf margins entire; cells papillose||Aulacopilum|
|Some leaves at least with upper margins denticulate||— 40|
|40||Capsule immersed; leaf apex as well as point hyaline||Hedwigia p.p.|
|Capsule exserted; only the point hyaline||— 41|
|41||Cells not forming a distinct alar group; leaves deeply plicate||Lepyrodon p.p.|
|Cells forming a distinct alar group; leaves not plicate||— 42|
|42||Alar cells a small dark group||Camptochaete p.p.|
|Alar cells a group of 2-3 large swollen hyaline cells||Acanthocladium|
|43||Alar cells forming a distinct group||— 44|
|Alar cells not forming a distinct group||— 46|
|44||Marginal leaf cells long and narrow forming a conspicuous border||Dicnemoloma|
|Leaves without such a border||— 45|
|45||Seta when wet flexuous or cygneous||Campylopus p.p.|
|Seta straight and erect||Dicranum p.p.|
|46||Leaf lamina hyaline at apex; nerve (apparently) vanishing below the apex||— 47|
|Leaf lamina not hyaline above||— 49|
|47||Basal leaf cells very long and narrow, nodulose (strongly thickened and waved)||Rhacomitrium p.p.|
|Basal leaf cells not nodulose, at most sinuouse only||— 48|
|48||Calyptra plicate||Coscinodon page 162|
|Calyptra smooth||Grimmia p.p.|
|49||Capsule immersed||Cryphaea p.p.|
|Capsule exserted||— 50|
|50||Capsule inclined to nodding||Bryum p.p.|
|Capsule erect or nearly so||— 51|
|51||Nerve yellow or yellowish green; upper part sometimes hyaline. Peristome well developed||Barbula p.p.|
|Nerve yellow excurrent in long hair point. Peristome almost wanting||Leptostomum p.p.|
|Nerve not yellow||— 52|
|52||Peristome long and twisted||Tortula p.p.|
|Peristome much shorter or wanting||— 53|
|53||Nerve slightly widened toward the apex, excurrent in a long flexuose arista, hyaline at its apex||Desmatodon p.p.|
|Nerve otherwise||— 54|
|54||Forming mats on trees or rocks. Stems creeping with crowded short erect branches. Two species may have piliform aristas with hyaline tips||Macromitrium p.p.|
|Plants without creeping primary stems||— 55|
|55||On bark or rock forming large corky tufts through the matting of the stems by red-brown tomentum. Peristome wanting or very rudimentary||Leptostomum p.p.|
|Stems not densely matted together; peristome present||— 56|
|56||On decayed animal or vegetable matter. Leaves spathulate or obovate||Tayloria|
|On bark or rock in mats: leaves elliptic oblong||Hymenodon p.p.|
|57||Base or all of leaf margins bordered with narrow or very small cells differing from the inner cells, or with a thickened margin||— 58|
|Leaves not so bordered||— 77|
|58||Leaf margins thickened||— 59|
|Leaf margins with an unthickened border||— 60|
|59||Capsules terminal, immersed. On bark||Cryptopodium|
|Capsules exserted, lateral: on earth, rarely on bark||Rhizogonium p.p.page 163|
|60||Nerve O or double and short||Eriopus|
|Nerve reaching at least to 1/3 way up leaf||— 61|
|61||Nerve ceasing some way below the apex||— 62|
|Nerve reaching apex or nearly so or excurrent||— 64|
|62||Leaves linear-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate||Daltonia|
|Leaves broader||— 63|
|63||Leaves tender and fleshy, more or less orbicular and obtuse with all the margin bordered; not papillose||Distichophyllum p.p.|
|Leaves of firmer texture, broadest at base and acute or mucronate, bordered only at base; leaf cells papillose||Papillaria|
|64||Alar cells well developed and distinct||— 65|
|Alar cells not distinctive||— 67|
|65||Leaves erecto-patent and crisped when dry with strongly undulate margins; capsules immersed||Mesotus|
|Leaves little altered when dry, margins not or little undulate; capsules exserted (except in Dicranoloma menziesii)||— 66|
|66||Seta cygneous, calyptra usually fringed at base||Campylopus p.p.|
|Seta erect or nearly so; calyptra not fringed; nerve usually narrower||Dicranoloma pp.|
|67||Seta lateral (pleurocarpous mosses)||— 68|
|Seta terminal (acrocarpous mosses)||— 69|
|68||Margin throughout consisting of several rows of long and narrow cells||Bellia|
|Marginal cells in lower half of the lamina forming up to 15 rows of isodiametrical cells in marked contrast to the longer inner cells||Crytopus|
|69||Peristome wanting||— 70|
|Peristome present||— 72|
|70||Capsules pyriform or turbinate; leaves obovate to spathulate||Phycomitrium p.p.|
|Capsules cylindrical to oblong; leaves oblong-lanceolate, occasionally some upper leaves spathulate||— 71|
|71||Leaf margins entire but rough with papillae||Encalypta p.p.|
|Leaf margin denticulate at the apex||Pottia p.p.page 164|
|72||Capsules erect, symmetrical or nearly so||— 75|
|Capsules inclined, hanging or asymmetrical||— 73|
|73||Capsules strongly arcuate||Funaria p.p.|
|Capsules straight or only slightly curved||— 74|
|74||Leaves large, 6-7 mm., tender and shrivelled when dry, rounded or retuse at apex; capsules horizontal to pendent, broadly ovate to oblong||Mnium|
|Leaves mostly less than 4 mm. long, of firmer texture; narrowed to the apex; capsules horizontal to pendent, clavate to pyriform||Bryum p.p.|
|75||Leaf apex rounded, obtuse and cucullate; nerve failing below the apex||Tridontium|
|Leaf apex acute: nerve reaching the apex||— 76|
|76||Leaf margin continuous to the apex; cells strongly papillose||Tortula p.p.|
|Leaf margin of narrow thin-walled cells, broader at base and gradually narrowing to cease about half-way up the base||Pseudodistrichium|
|77||Alar cells not distinctly developed||— 110|
|Alar cells more or less distinctly developed, forming a group differing from adjacent cells in size, form or in the thicker or thinner cell walls||— 78|
|78||Leaf nerve O or short (to 1/3 way up the leaf), single or double and often faint||— 79|
|Leaf nerve single, reaching at least half-way up the leaf||— 92|
|79||Capsule exserted||— 80|
|Capsule immersed or emergent||Dicnemon p.p.|
|80||A swamp moss with large terminal globular yellow capsule with operculum not differentiated; leaves closely appressed when dry||Pleurophascum|
|Capsules with dehiscent opercula||— 81|
|81||Leaves deeply plicate, the bluntly acuminate apex sharply recurved||Cladomnion|
|Leaf apex not sharply recurved||— 82|
|82||Leaves straight or very little recurved||— 86|
|Leaves curved to circinate||— 83|
|83||Capsules pendulous, symmetrical, oblong; alar cells present but extremely delicate and can be missed. Known definitely only from Kermadec Is.||*Ectropotheciumpage 165|
|Capsules erect to horizontal||— 84|
|84||Alar cells about 3 inflated hyaline cells with thin walls||Sematophyllum p.p.|
|Alar cells forming a small dark group of darker cells with thickened walls||— 85|
|85||Seta 2-8 mm. long||Camptochaete p.p.|
|Seta 2-3 cm. long||Hypnum|
|86||Leaves obtuse; alar cells large and hyaline with thin cell walls||Acrocladium p.p.|
|Leaves obtuse: alar cells forming dark coloured auricles of small thick-walled cells||Weymouthia|
|87||Leaves narrow lingulate to lanceolate, 2-3.5 mm. long. Water mosses||Drepanocladus p.p.|
|Leaves not lingulate: not water mosses||— 88|
|88||Leaves, especially the lateral, asymmetrical||— 89|
|Leaves symmetrical||— 90|
|89||Nerve double, very short and faint||Hampeella|
|Nerve double, unevenly forked and reaching to about 1 3 way up the lamina: alars weakly formed or almost wanting||Plagiothecium|
|90||Leaf margins denticulate above||Glyphothecium p.p.|
|Leaf margins sharply denticulate throughout||Ctenidium|
|Leaf margins hardly or not dentate||— 91|
|91||Leaves erecto-patent. ovate to ovate-lanceolate; capsules 1-1.75 mm. long||Sematophyllum p.p.|
|Leaves imbricate, erecto-patent, oblong-ovate; capsules cylindrical, 188.8.131.52 mm. long||Entodon|
|Leaves squarrose. the lamina spreading rather rigidly from the stem, elongate lanceolate, capsule 2-3.5 mm. long||Campylium p.p.|
|92||Seta terminal (acrocarpous mosses)||— 93|
|Seta lateral (pleurocarpous mosses)||— 99|
|93||Plants dark coloured, almost black below, on rock or in streams. Capsules small, subglobose, blackish, wide-mouthed||Blindia page 166|
|Plants normally coloured, capsules cylindrical to oval. On rock, wood or earth||— 94|
|94||Lamina extending only to half-way up the leaf||*Chorisodontium|
|Lamina extending much further up the leaf||— 95|
|95||Seta cygneous; nerve broad||Campylopus p.p.|
|Seta erect, may be flexuous; nerve usually narrow||— 96|
|96||Leaf base broad, suddenly narrowed to the subula||Holomitrium|
|Leaf base more gradually narrowing||— 97|
|97||Capsule erect, symmetrical; peristome teeth not or scarcely vertically striate||Dicranoweisia|
|Peristome teeth vertically striolate on dorsal face||— 98|
|98||Leaves not bordered||Dicranum p.p.|
|Leaves with a narrow border of hyaline cells, frequently visible only at the base||*Dicranoloma p.p.|
|99||Capsules immersed or emergent; plants usually very free fruiters||Cryphaea p.p.|
|Capsules exserted; some shy fruiters||— 100|
|100||Mountain mosses: all or at least some leaves showing a vinous-red or purple colour||Acrocladium p.p.|
|Plants not so coloured||— 101|
|101||Leaves round and obtuse at the apex||— 102|
|Leaves acute||— 103|
|102||Plants erect from a primary stem, dendroidly branched above||Climacium|
|Plants prostrate or ascending, complanate with numerous short lateral branches||*Scleropodius|
|103||Leaves falcate-secund||— 104|
|Leaves straight or only slightly curved||— 105|
|104||Seta papillose||*Chamberlainia p.p.|
|Seta smooth||Drepanocladus p.p.|
|105||Operculum conical||— 106|
|Operculum rostrate||— 108|
|106||Leaves not exceeding 1 mm. long, not plicate, may be slightly falcate-secund at branch tips||Cratoneuron page 167|
|Leaves exceeding 1 mm. long, sometimes plicate||— 107|
|107||Leaves usually plicate, ± secund, small quadrate alar cells, erect capsules and smooth setae||*Chamberlainia p.p.|
|Leaves usually smooth, not secund, alar cells lax or inflated, capsules never erect, setae papillose||Brachythecium|
|Seta papillose||— 109|
|109||Leaves mostly dimorphous and more or less plicate; nerve often ending in a dorsal spicule||Eurhynchium|
|Leaves neither dimorphous nor plicate; nerve never ending in a dorsal spicule: plants more slender||Rhynchostegiella|
|110||Seta terminal on the branch or stem, sometimes apparently lateral owing to innovations. Plants often short and little branched; or branches whorled or fascicled; or numerous short erect branches rise from a horizontal primary stem (acrocarpous mosses)||— 111|
|Seta lateral, hence plants often long and straggly with pinnate or irregular branching (pleurocarpous mosses)||— 191|
|111||Peristome of only 4 solid persistent teeth; small mountain moss from fissures in old lava||Tetraphis|
|Peristome nil or of more than 4 teeth, or capsule unknown||— 112|
|112||Leaves nerveless||— 113|
|Leaves nerved||— 115|
|113||Minute plant, rarely 2 mm. high, not creeping; perichaetial leaves not closely sheathing the capsule||Sporledera|
|Plant taller, primary stem creeping; perichaetial leaves closely sheathing the seta and capsule||— 114|
|114||Leaves orbicular, those on the upper fertile stems larger and whitish||Gigaspermum|
|Leaves oblong-acute; perichaetial leaves not whitish||Dicnemon p.p.|
|115||Capsule cleistocarpous; minute plants on earth usually fruiting freely (in Archidium future findings likely to have capsules)||— 116|
|Capsule stegocarpous, the operculum falling normally||— 121|
|116||Small; leaves broad in comal tufts closely investing the capsule||— 117|
|Leaves narrower, not comose||— 118page 168|
|117||Stems 0.5-1.0 mm. high; nerve failing below the apex||Physcomitridium|
|Stems 1-2 mm. high; nerve excurrent in a mucro||Acaulon|
|118||Capsules 1-2 to a stem: from swamps||Pseudephemerum|
|Capsules only one to a stem||— 119|
|119||Leaf cells papillose: leaves when dry curled and contorted. with incurving margins||Astomum|
|Leaf cells smooth; leaves not contorted when dry||— 120|
|120||Plants 2-5 mm. high, usually fruiting||Pleuridium|
|Plants 1 cm. high. Found once only, sterile, on coastal rocks||Archidium|
|121||Capsule neck shorter or wanting or peristome double||— 122|
|Capsule neck 1-1½ times as long as the capsule sac; peristome single||Trematoton|
|122||Plants with silky, setaceous leaves and glossy pyriform capsules of papery texture||Leptobryum|
|Plants otherwise||— 123|
|123||Peristome absent||— 124|
|Peristome present, of distinct teeth||— 135|
|124||Leaves when dry very regularly placed with incurved tips so that the leaf spiral insertion is well shown. Usually arboreal||Macromitrium p.p.|
|Leaves crumpled or more normally disposed when dry; tips not strikingly incurved||— 125|
|125||Capsule with a red rim, not closed by a membrane: leaves lanceolate||Weissia p.p.|
|Capsule rim not red, or if somewhat so, leaves minute or linear or capsule closed by a membrane||— 126|
|126||Exactly like Weissia in No. 125 but peristome mouth closed by an ephemeral membrane||Hymenostomum|
|Peristome mouth not so closed||— 127|
|127||Calyptra very large, mitriform. enclosing the cylindrical capsule||Encalypta p.p.|
|Calyptra smaller or cucullate||— 128|
|128||Forming dense cushions or matted masses; leaves linear-lanceolate or linear, minute||— 129page 169|
|Plants may be crowded but do not form matted masses; leaves broader||— 130|
|129||Capsule exserted, smooth||Gymnostomum|
|Capsule not reaching above the leaves, ribbed||Amphidium|
|130||Calyptra mitriform; leaves spathulate||Physcomitrium p.p.|
|Calyptra cucullate; leaves narrower||— 131|
|Leaves acute or acuminate||—132|
|132||Small annual mosses with cells usually papillose, 4-6 sided with thin walls; peristome wanting or nearly so||Pottia p.p.|
|Mostly perennial, cells smooth or only papillose above; peristome usually present||— 133|
|133||Capsule sulcate, peristome variable sometimes wanting||Zygodon p.p.|
|Capsules not sulcate||— 134|
|134||Capsules globose: peristome teeth joined at their apices||Conostomum p.p.|
|Capsules longer than broad: peristome teeth free||Funaria p.p.|
|135||Peristome single||— 136|
|Peristome double||— 175|
|136||Plants of a glaucous, blue-green colour||Saelania|
|Plants of a normal green colour||— 137|
|137||Leaves obtuse||— 138|
|Leaves subacute to acuminate||— 147|
|138||Plants minute to 3 mm. tall but usually only 1.5 mm.; consisting of a brownish green bulbil of appressed leaves. Seta to 1 cm. long||Desmatodon p.p.|
|Plants larger or if not, leaves not so closely appressed||— 139|
|139||Peristome long of 32 filiform mostly spirally twisted teeth||— 140|
|Peristome of shorter mostly broader teeth, never twisted||— 141|
|140||Leaves with margins incurved above, cucullate at apex, nerve excurrent in a short mucro||Tortella p.p.|
|Leaves with margins recurved or plane, not cucullate at apex, usually without point||Tortula p.p.|
|141||Leaves papillose above on the upper face||— 142|
|Leaves smooth above on the upper face||— 143page 170|
|142||Densely tufted and matted with calcareous detritus on dripping rock faces: pale glaucous green||Eucladium|
|Darker or yellowish-green||— 144|
|143||Capsule 8-ribbed||Zygodon p.p.|
|Capsule smooth or only mouth plicate||Macromitrium p.p.|
|144||Found only on coastal rocks, not much above high tide level||Mulleriella p.p.|
|Not found on coastal rocks||— 145|
|145||Leaves 1-1.25 mm. long||Didymodon|
|Leaves 1.75-4.0 mm. long||— 146|
|146||Leaf base with clearly defined rounded auricles at the outside angles||*Scouleria|
|Leaves not auriculate||Weissia p.p.|
|147||Capsule quite immersed||— 148|
|Capsule emergent or exserted||— 150|
|148||Calyptra hairless||— 149|
|Calyptra small, slightly pilose with short coarse hairs; a rare mountain moss||Bryodixonia|
|149||A rare moss from coastal rocks. Peristome pale||Muelleriella p.p.|
|A common moss, on earth or rock or even submerged. Peristome deep red. Cells sinuose||Grimmia p.p.|
|150||Lower leaf cells long and very narrow with strongly thickened walls waved in outline (nodulose)||Rhacomitrium p.p.|
|Cells not so thickened||— 151|
|151||Seta cygneous when moist, flexuose when dry: capsules ribbed. Calyptra not fringed||Campylopodium|
|Seta straight when mature||— 152|
|152||Capsules ribbed or more or less angled when dry||— 153|
|Capsules not ribbed||— 159|
|153||Capsules symmetrical and symmetrically placed on top of the seta when mature and dry||— 154|
|Capsule asymmetrical and or asymmetrically placed on the seta when mature and dry||— 156|
|154||Nerve excurrent||Weissia p.p.page 171|
|Nerve ceasing below the apex||—155|
|155||Upper leaf cells papillose||Zygodon p.p.|
|Upper leaf cells smooth||Dicranella p.p.|
|156||Leaves with a broad sheathing base quite suddenly narrowed to the lamina||Bartramia|
|Leaf bases not sheathing, more gradually narrowed to the lamina||—157|
|157||Leaves ovate to obovate-oblong; margins not recurved, entire||Funaria p.p.|
|Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate; margins more or less recurved||—158|
|158||Capsule turgidly oval; leaf margins only partly recurved||Conostomum p.p.|
|Capsules ovate-lanceolate; leaf margins all tightly recurved nearly to the apex||Ceratodon|
|159||Nerve greatly thickened in upper part and ending in a mucro||Desmatodon p.p.|
|Nerve not thickened above||—160|
|160||Peristome of 16 teeth, deeply divided into 32 long twisted filiform segments||—161|
|Peristome teeth shorter and broader, either entire or less deeply divided and not twisted||—163|
|161||Leaf margins incurved or plane, hyaline basal cells extending obliquely higher up the margin||Tortella p.p.|
|Leaf margin usually recurved; maybe bordered but hyaline basal cells not extending obliquely higher at the margin||—162|
|162||Leaf margins closely recurved, entire; basal cells not greatly differentiated from those above, i.e. not lax and hyaline||Barbula p.p.|
|Leaf margins plane, recurved or reflexed, entire or dentate above; basal cells larger and hyaline||Tortula p.p.|
|163||Only the inner peristome developed, of 16 narrowly linear articulated processes||Mielichhoferia|
|Only the outer peristome developed, of linear, papillose or broader teeth||—164|
|164||Forming mats; primary stem creeping with closely packed, short, erect branches||Macromitrium p.p.page 172|
|Plants without a creeping stem||—165|
|Leaves straight or only slightly curved||—167|
|166||Leaves 1-2 mm. long||Ditrichum p.p.|
|Leaves 3-3.75 mm. long||Wilsoniella|
|Leaves not papillose||—171|
|168||Leaves squarrose when moist||—169|
|Leaves not squarrose||—170|
|169||Leaves undulate and serrate||Leptodontium|
|Leaf margins entire and not undulate||Zygodon p.p.|
|170||Nerve percurrent; apex not apiculate||Cheilothela|
|Nerve ceasing below the apex with a hyaline apiculus||Erythrobarbula|
|171||Calyptra mitriform: rock mosses||Ptychomitrium|
|172||Peristome teeth of filiform papillose segments||Ditrichum p.p.|
|Peristome teeth lanceolate||—173|
|173||Leaves comparatively broad, oblong, ovate or obovate with lax cells||Funaria p.p.|
|174||Capsule with a distinct neck; as broad as high with a wide mouth||Seligeria|
|Capsule neck not or only slightly developed; capsule much higher than broad, about 2 × 1||Dicranella p.p.|
|175||Leaves linear-sublate to lanceolate-subulate||—176|
|176||Capsule lightly sulcate; leaves 3.5-5 mm. long||Orthodontium|
|Capsule smooth; leaves 1-2 mm. long||Pohlia p.p.|
|Leaves not papillose||—180|
|178||Leaves more or less plicate from a sub-sheathing base||Breutelia|
|Leaves not plicate and not sheathing at the base||—179|
|179||Nerve not reaching the apex; leaf margins narrowlypage 173|
|revolute from the base to far up the lamina||Aulacomnium|
|Nerve percurrent or excurrent: leaf margins somewhat recurved or plane||Philonotis|
|Capsule not ribbed||—184|
|181||Capsule long, narrowly cylindrical, 3-4 mm. long; brood filaments common in upper leaf axils||Leptotheca|
|Capsule more or less oval, smaller, to 2.5 mm. long||—182|
|182||Main stem creeping, branches short and erect; calyptra large smooth, neither plicate nor hairy, campanulate||Schlotheimia|
|Stem not creeping: calyptra hairy or not||—183|
|183||Inner cells at leaf base strongly incrassate and differentiated from the outer cells; stomata at the base of the capsule||Ulota|
|Inner cells at leaf base scarcely incrassate and little differentiated; stomata in the middle or upper part of the capsule||Orthotrichum p.p.|
|184||Seta from the base of the stem; capsule often asymmetrical and recurved, horizontal||Goniobryum|
|Seta from the stem apex||—185|
|185||Capsule pyriform, variably curved and gibbous with a tapered neck; nerve very wide below, failing below the apex||Meesia|
|Capsules straight or slightly curved||—186|
|186||Leaf cells in mid-leaf rounded or shortly oval||Orthotrichum p.p.|
|Leaf cells rhomboid or rhomboid-hexagonal, to linear or vermicular||—187|
|187||Leaf cells usually elongated. 4 × 1 or longer; nerve mostly failing below the apex||Pohlia p.p.|
|Leaf cells usually broader, less than 4 × 1; nerve often reaching the apex or percurrent||—188|
|188||Capsule erect or sub-erect; peristome more or less rudimentary, without cilia:||Brachymenium|
|Capsule usually pendulous; processes normal||—189|
|189||Outer peristome teeth shorter than the processes; cilia rudimentary||Plagiobryum page 174|
|Outer peristome teeth not shorter than the processes||Bryum p.p.|
|190||Robust dendroid mosses with creeping rhizomatous primary stems and woody secondary ones; cells elongate, prosenchymatous; capsules large, cylindrical; operculum rostrate||—191|
|Less robust mosses; if with creeping woody primary stem, then capsules and cells otherwise||—194|
|191||Frond elongate, bipinnate, growing at right angles from tree trunks; branch leaves almost obtuse||Braithwaitea|
|Branches in a close frond or whorled, leaves acute; usually on earth or logs||—192|
|192||Stipe naked; capsule smooth||Sciadocladus|
|193||Stipes without marked tomentum; leaves mostly complanate, plane above||Hypnodendron|
|Stipes tomentose; leaves crowded, not complanate, concave or channelled above||Mniodendron|
|Capsules exserted or almost so||—197|
|195||Nerve strong, reaching apex or shortly excurrent||Anoectangium|
|Nerve wanting or reaching only to midleaf||—196|
|196||Leaves imbricate when dry, not complanate. Cells more or less papillose||Hedwigia p.p.|
|Leaves complanately arranged; cells smooth||Neckera p.p.|
|197||Leaves more or less papillose||—189|
|Leaves not at all papillose||—203|
|198||Leaves of harsh texture with long often red hair points; nerveless||Rhacocarpus|
|Leaves without hair points, nerved except sometimes in Camptochaete||—199|
|199||Leaves from a very broad triangular base with inflexed finely denticulate basal auricles, lanceolate-subulate above||Papillaria|
|Leaves without auricles at the base||—200|
|200||Secondary stems with numerous paraphyllia||Thuidium|
|Stems without paraphyllia||—201|
|201||Leaves 0.5 mm. long, lingulate||Haplohymenium page 175|
|Leaves not lingulate||—202|
|202||Yellow-green plants in dense intricate tufts; leaves ovate-oblong to obovate oblong||Camptochaete p.p.|
|Dark or olive-green plants, neither densely nor intricately branched; leaves from ligulate-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate and longly setaceous||Echinodium p.p.|
|204||Leaves widely oblong or oval, very obtuse: stems with paraphyllia||Neckera p.p.|
|Leaves more or less ovate or lanceolate and acute or with the apex sharply recurved: stems without paraphyllia||—205|
|205||Leaves rounded, apex not retuse: inner peristome wanting||Dichelodontium|
|Leaves acute; inner peristome present||—206|
|206||Plants very small, on bushes, vines or occasionally on trees; gemmae globose in terminal clusters||Tetraphidopsis|
|Plants larger; gemmae when present axillary in the upper leaves||—207|
|207||Capsule horizontal; leaves squarrose||Ptychomnion|
|Capsules erect or suberect: leaves not squarrose||—208|
|208||Leaves deeply plicate with retuse recurved apices; robust plants||Cladomnion|
|Leaves slightly plicate, acute: brood filaments short; plants less robust||Glyphothecium p.p.|
|Leaves not plicate, asymmetrical; or polymorphous; brood filaments long: plants mostly slender and short||Hampeella|
|209||Stems and branches strongly enrolled when dry||Leptodon|
|Stems and branches not enrolled||—210|
|210||Nerve O or weak and single, double or forked, not usually reaching mid-leaf||—211|
|Nerve reaching mid-leaf or longer, single||—221|
|211||Stems with paraphyllia; leaves ovate-oblong; nerve double to mid-leaf. Mountain moss on earth||Hylocomium|
|Stems without paraphyllia||—212page 176|
|212||Dendroidly branched above; lower stem leafless and woody||Camptochaete p.p.|
|Stems not woody||—213|
|213||Leaves narrow, tapering to an acute apex; nerveless||—214|
|Leaves broader, obtuse or narrowing rather suddenly to a short point||—215|
|214||Operculum conical; calyptra cucullate||Isopterygium|
|Operculum conico-rostrate: calyptra mitriform||Sauloma|
|215||On trees; glossy, sometimes partly white; branches often bare at ends and densely clothed with brown septate brood filaments; capsule narrowly cylindrical||Trachyloma|
|216||Leaves concave, not much longer than broad, very rounded at apex, of firm or papery texture||Lembophyllum|
|Leaves usually longer than broad, fleshy when fresh; not concave: fronds flattened||—217|
|217||Calyptra cucullate. Leaf cells not varying greatly in size except at the base, small (to 28 μ diameter in mid-leaf) with rather or much thickened walls||—219|
|Calyptra mitriform. Mid-leaf cells much enlarged (40-120 μ diameter) with thin walls||—218|
|218||Calyptra lobed at base; nerve forked above in 2 of the 3 species||Pterygophyllum|
|Calyptra fimbriate at base; nerve not forked at apex||Distichophyllum p.p.|
|219||Leaves with the lower margin inflexed on one side, not undulate||Homalia|
|Leaves linear-oblong, strongly undulate, not with one side inflexed at the base||Porotrichum|
|220||Cells short in mid-leaf, oval to rhomboid, 2-5 × 1, leaves broad and short except in Echinodium||—221|
|Cells narrow, 7-15 × 1||—224|
|221||Leaves squarrose, widely spreading with a lanceolate lamina from a cordate-ovate base||Cratoneuropsis|
|Leaves not squarrosely spreading||—222|
|222||Sub-pinnately branched above, leaves complanate, spreading or suberect, widely oblong to elliptic-spathulate||Thamnium|
|Leaves neither oblong nor complanate||—223page 177|
|223||Leaves when dry densely imbricated and erect, broadly ovate and acute||Pseudoleskea|
|Leaves spreading when dry, not imbricated; either ovate-lanceolate and very longly acuminate or with the lamina broader||Echinodium p.p.|
|224||Leaves ovate-cordate, minutely and distantly denticulate almost throughout||Eriodon|
|Leaves narrower, mostly ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, entire or denticulate at apex only||—225|
|225||Leaf cells in mid leaf somewhat narrow, 8-10 × 1; slender plants with leaves 1 mm. long||Amblystegium|
|Rather more robust plants with narrower cells and longer leaves, 1-4 mm. long||—226|
|226||Leaf acumen channelled; leaves not divergent||Campylium p.p.|
|Leaf acumen flat, not channelled; leaves divergent||Leptodictyum|
Anomodon, couplet 14. This appears in the Handbook under Triquetrella, but in the addenda Sainsbury states that he thinks it is probably an Anomodon.
Fabroniaceae, couplet 37. This moss was found sterile in the Lake Wakatipu district and its genus cannot be determined. Sainsbury discusses it on page 453 in the Handbook.
Ectropothecium, couplet 83. This genus has been reported from New Zealand but no recent specimens have been seen. However I have examined a specimen in Beckett's collection, in the Canterbury Museum, from Kermadec Island which is Ectropothecium sandwichense.
Chorisodontium, couplet 94. A new species of this genus was recently described (Allison. 1963) from material collected by C. J. Burrows, in Rough Creek Basin, Arthur's Pass. It belongs to the Dicranaceae.
Dicranoloma, couplet 98. This genus comes very close to Dicranum and is not sharply distinct from it. The leaf border in Dicranoloma is given as a main distinction but it can be very indistinct or even wanting in some specimens.
Scleropodium, couplet 102. This genus is probably introduced and is discussed by Sainsbury on page 457 in the Handbook. It occurs also in Dunedin.
Chamberlainia, couplets 104 and 107. This genus was split off from Brachythecium by Grout in 1928 and revised and enlarged page 178 by H. Robinson in 1962 to include essentially the sections Salebrosia, Acuminata and Velutina of Brachythecium.
Scouleria, couplet 147. This genus belongs to the Grimmiaceae. A new species was found by C. J. Burrows in Rough Creek Basin, Arthur's Pass, and has not yet been described.
Pylaisia. The reported occurrence of this genus in New Zealand is discussed in the Handbook by Sainsbury at pages 469-470. Its occurrence in New Zealand seems very doubtful and it is omitted.
- Acumen: a tapering narrow point, usually describing a leaf apex.
- Acuminate: tapering to a gradually diminishing point: more drawn out than acute.
- Alar Cells: a usually conspicuous group of cells at the outside base of a leaf, differing greatly in size, shape or wall-thickness from the surrounding cells (fig. 7).
- Amplexicaul: clasping the stem.
- Apiculus: a short abrupt point to a leaf, usually but not always acute.
- Appressed: of leaves; applied closely to the stem in an erect position.
- Arboreal: growing on trees.
- Arista: a fine, bristle-shaped point.
- Arcuate: of capsules; bent in a curve like a bow.
- Auricles: ear-like lobes at leaf bases.
- Brood-Filaments: thread-like bodies of few (4) to many cells long, borne on stems and branches, which can presumably reproduce the plant.
- Bulbils: minute bulb-shaped bodies borne on rhizoids or in leaf axils which can reproduce the plant.
- Calcareous: containing chalk or lime: an alkaline, not acid, soil or rock
- Calyptra: the upper part of the ruptured archegonium which is carried up by the capsule as it develops and forms a covering for it (fig. 45).
- Campanulate: more or less bell shaped with an entire base.
- Cernuous: nodding.
- Cilia: the narrow teeth of the endostome.
- Ciliate: having the margin fringed with hairs (fig. 11).
- Circinate: curved almost into a circle; of leaves.
- Clavate: club shaped; broadest about the middle or above.
- Cleistocarpous: of a capsule from which the operculum does not separate.
- Comal Tufts, Comose: having the leaves in tufts at the apex of the stem or branch.page 179
- Complanate: flat or plane: of leaves or stems.
- Conic: cone shaped, circular in cross section: height only once or twice the diameter of the base.
- Cordate: heart shaped.
- Cucullate: of a calyptra, split up one side: of a leaf, hood-shaped.
- Decurrent: with the leaf base running down the stem like a wing.
- Dendroid: branched like a tree, with a bare trunk.
- Dentate: of leaves, sharply toothed.
- Denticulate: finely toothed.
- Dimorphous: of two forms.
- Distichous: arranged in two vertical rows.
- Dorsal: of leaves, abaxial or the surface facing away from the stem.
- Emergent: a capsule wholly included in the perichaetial leaves is termed ‘immersed’ (fig. 36): if the capsule is partly above them, it is ‘emergent’: if the perichaetial leaves do not reach the base of the capsule, it ‘exserted’.
- Endostome: the inner teeth (processes and cilia) of the peristome.
- Erecto-Patent: midway between erect and patent: spreading from the stem at an agle of 45 deg. or less.
- Excurrent: of a nerve, extending beyond the leaf apex as an extension or awn (fig. 5).
- Exserted: see ‘emergent’.
- Falcate: sickle shaped; curved like a scythe blade.
- Fascicled: arranged in a small bundle or close cluster.
- Filiform: thread-like.
- Fimbriate: of calyptra, fringed with cilia or fine hairs.
- Flabellate: fan-shaped.
- Flexuous: bent backwards and forwards, or waved.
- Gametophyte: in mosses, the leafy plant, which bears the leaves and sexual organs; an archegonium develops into the capsule and seta, the sporophyte, which is parasitic on the gametophyte.
- Gemmae: outgrowths on stems or leaves of few or many cells which are shed to reproduce the plant vegetatively (figs. 10, 43).
- Gemmiform: of a male flower, shaped like a small bud, ovoid with a narrow tip.
- Gibbous: of capsules, swollen on one side.
- Gymnostomous: of capsules, without a peristome.
- Immersed: see emergent (fig. 36).
- Incrassate: of cell-walls, thickened: having thick walls.
- Inflexed: turned upwards and inwards.
- Innovations: branches or fresh shoots from a stem and so lateral.page 180
- Involute: of leaf-margins, rolled inwards.
- Julaceous: smoothly cylindrical, like a worm.
- Lamellate: furnished with lamellae or thin plates of tissue at right angles to the face bearing them (figs. 1, 9).
- Lamina: the blade or expanded part of the leaf as distinct from the nerve.
- Lanceolate: shaped like a lance head: broadest near the base, tapering upwards from a narrow ovate base.
- Lax: of alar cells, loose, large with thin walls.
- Ligulate: strap shaped (quite or almost of equal width for all its length).
- Linear: narrow and elongated with parallel margins.
1. Transverse section of leaf of Polytrichum commune showing lamellae on the upper surface. 2. Leaf of Dicnemoloma showing papillose lower surface. 3. Leaf of Loptobryum pyriforme. 4. Leaf of Pterygophyllum dentarum with forked nerve and denticulate margin. 5. Leaf of Tortula princeps showing the nerve excurrent in a long dentate, flexuose, piliferous point. 6. Leaf of Hypnum cupressiforme, strongly curved and nerveless. 7. Leaf of Acrocladium auriculatum with short nerve and conspicuous alar areas. 8. Leaf of Fissidens leptocladus showing the nerve reaching the apex, vaginant leaf base (stippled) and thickened margins. 9. Leaf of Polytrichum commune showing dentate margins and upper surfaces opaque owing to the numerous longitudinal lamellae. 10. Leaf of Calyptopogon mniodes showing the apical mass of gemmae on the upper surface. 11. Leaf of Catharomnion ciliatum showing the remarkable ciliation. 12. Leaf of Hymenodon piliferus showing piliferous apex and nerve not reaching the apex. 13. Leaf of Rhizogonium mnioides with thickened, dentate margins. 14. Leaf of Cladomnion ericoides, nerveless, plicate and with recurved apiculus. 15. Leaf of Ctenidium pubescens showing the margins dentate almost to the base. 16. Leaf of Dicranoloma dicarpum with strongly spinulose upper margins. 17. Branch leaf of Sphagnum cuspidatum. 18. Sphagnum: part of a branch leaf surface, strongly magnified to show the long chlorophyllose cells enclosing the larger hyaline ones which are strengthened with ‘spirals’ or cell wall thickenings. 19. Capsule of Polytrichum juniperinum and front view of its mouth showing the (ruptured) circular membrane held in place by the 64 short teeth. 20. Capsule of Tortula princeps, erect, with twisted peristome rising from the entire basal part. 21. Capsule of Ceratodon purpureus, inclined and ribbed. 22. Capsule of Bryum truncorum, pendulous with conical opercuium. 23. Capsule of Weisia viridula, erect, with short peristome teeth. 24. Capsule of Conostomum pusillum, striate and horizontal. 25. Capsule of Polytrichadelphus magellanicus with operculum. 26. Capsule of Trematodon suberectus, inclined with long neck. 27. Capsule of Hypnum cupressiforme, inclined and with conicomamillate operculum. 28. Capsule of Ptychomnion aciculate, inclined and striate with the strikingly long operculum. 29. Capsule of Leptobryum pyriforme. 30. Capsule of Orthotrichum hortense, erect and ribbed with short, recurved outer peristome. The inner peristome consists of eight filiform processes which remain more or less horizontal across the mouth, but may be soon lost.
- Lingulate: tongue shaped: shorter than ligulate and wider towards the base with rounded apex.
- Mitriform: of a calyptra, campanulate, not split up one side as in cucullate (fig. 46).
- Mucro: of leaf apex, a very short, usually rather stout, abrupt point.
- Mucronate: having a mucro.
- Multifarious: in many rows.
- Nerve: the midrib of the leaf.
- Obovate: inversely ovate, with the broadest part near the apex.
- Operculum: the lid of the capsule which usually is shed to release the spores (figs. 22, 25, 27, 28).
- Orbicular: almost circular.
- Ovate: shaped like the longitudinal section of an egg with the broadest part near the base.
- Papilla: a small superficial elevation.
- Papillose: provided with papillae (fig. 2).
- Paraphyllia: minute leaf-like or much branched organs among the leaves.
- Percurrent: of a nerve, just reaching the apex of the leaf, but not beyond.
- Perichaetial: of leaves (fig. 42): those at the base of the seta which often differ from the others.
- Peristome: the teeth which form a single or double row of appendages to the capsule mouth, seen on the fall of the operculum: sometimes absent, when the capsule is ‘gymnostomous’.
- Piliferous: bearing long hair-like points.
- Piliform: like a long flexuous hair.
31. (a) Ephemeropsis trentepohlioides, part of tuft with young capsules and male flowers; (b) Enlarged piece showing male flowers. 32. Fissidens leptocladus showing terminal seta. 33. Cyathophorum bulbosum, lower side, showing the three rows of leaves and capsules. 34. Hypopterygium setigerum showing umbrella-like growth habit. 35. Pterygophyllum dentatum showing leaves inserted in several rows but spreading laterally to form a flattened ‘frond’. 36. Hedwigia albicans with immersed capsules. 37. Leptobryum pyriforme. 38. Macromitrium longipes. 39. Physcomitrium conicum with gymnostomous capsule. 40. Thuidium furfurosum with bi-pinnate branching. 41. Weymouthia mollis showing irregular or sub-pinnate branching. 42. Dicranoloma fasciatum showing the perichaetial leaves sheathing the whole seta. 43. Tetraphidopsis pusillus showing terminal heads of gemmae. 44. Hypnum cupressiforme with the densely placed curved leaves giving the stems a turgid appearance. 45. Fringed cucullate calyptra of Campylopus torquatus. 46. Entire mitriform calyptra of Cyathophorum bolbosum.
- Pilose: furnished with rather long and soft distinct hairs.
- Pinnate: ‘feather-like’, with more or less regular lateral branching (figs. 40, 41).
- Plicate: furnished with ‘plicae’ or longitudinal folds like those of a fan (fig. 14).
- Processes: the larger divisions of the endostome (see cilia).
- P.P. (Pro Parte): in part: indicates that other species of the genus appear in another part of the Key.
- Prosenchymatous: long narrow cells with pointed ends dovetailing into one another.
- Protonema: the branched thread-like growth arising from the germinated spore, which gives rise to the moss plant (fig. 3lb).
- Pyriform: pear shaped.
- Retuse: of leaves, with the apex broad and slightly depressed.
- Rostrate: beaked wtih a long slender point.
- Rugose: wrinkled, usually transversely.
- Second: turned or pointing to one side only.
- Serrate: furnished with saw-like teeth.
- Seta: (a) a bristle; (b) the capsule stalk (fig. 32).
- Setaceous: bristle-like, in shape.
- Setose: sparsely provided with bristles.
- Spathulate: rounded or shortly oblong with the lower end drawn out: like a chemist's spatula (fig. 4).
- Sporophyte: see gametophyte.
- Squarrose: with points spreading widely, giving a rough appearance to the plant.
- Stipe: the lower simple erect stem of a branched moss.
- Subula: the longer narrowed upper part of a narrow leaf: the broader basal part is the ‘lamina’.
- Subulate: awl shaped.
- Sulcate: deeply longitudinally furrowed, usually of capsules.
- Terete: round, not angled or grooved.
- Tomentum: a densely-matted woolly covering of rhizoids.
- Tristichous: in three rows.
- Turbinate: top shaped.
- Vaginate: sheathing, as the base of an iris leaf (fig. 8).
- Ventral: of leaves, belonging to or on the front, i.e. the face next the stem.
- Vermicular: narrow and curved, like a small worm.
- Whorled: arranged in a whorl or ring.