The Maori Canoe
The canoes of the Micronesians, states Hale, resemble, in model, construction, and rig, those of the Fijians, and are like a long, narrow boat. They sail very near the wind, and move with great page 370rapidity. The largest seen are at Makin, which are not less than 60 ft. in length, and 6 ft. in width. The canoes of the Mulgrave Islands have one side flattened. This latter form is a Malay Archipelago type, the proa or prau.
Canoes of Caroline Islands
Morrell, who cruised among the Caroline Islands in 1830, speaks as follows of the canoes of the natives:—
The canoes of these natives are mostly of great length, carrying from fifteen to thirty men. The bottom is of one log, generally from thirty to fifty feet in length, and got out [hewn out] in the form of a canoe… On this foundation they proceed to build the vessel. Each side is formed of a single plank, from fourteen to eighteen inches in width, making the depth of the boat; but the two sides are not alike, one being nearly flat and straight next the water, and the other somewhat bulging. These sides are sewed fast to the bottom with a strong cord made from the bark of a tree, and also to a beautifully carved head and stern, resembling those of the ancient galleys which we often meet with in classical paintings.
As these canoes are frequently propelled by sails, and as the bulging side is always to windward, the reader will naturally suppose that it could not long retain an upright position, but would be liable to be upset. This is prevented, however, by a very ingenious contrivance. A frame, called an outrigger, projects out eight or ten feet horizontally from the rounded, bulging, or windward side, at the extreme end of which is attached a piece of buoyant wood, shaped something like a canoe. The weight of this apparatus prevents the boats capsizing to leeward, while that side being flat prevents her making leeway. At the same time the buoyancy of the outrigger and bamboo frame renders it impossible for her to overset to windward. This is the form and construction of their single canoes, which go through the water with great velocity, whether propelled by paddles or sails, or both.
Their double canoes are formed in the same manner as the one just described, with the exception of the outrigger, which, of course, is not necessary. Two canoes are fastened together abreast of each other, with bamboos extended across them, on the same principle of construction as our twin ferry-steamboats. These canoes are generally about forty feet in length, and the distance between them is from eight to ten feet. The bamboos which unite them are placed about two feet apart, and strongly secured to the gunnels by a lashing of their bark cord. Small sticks of bamboo are then extended fore and aft, secured to the cross-pieces, thus forming a light platform from twenty to twenty-five feet in length, and eight or ten feet wide. They paddle on the two outsides and insides of the canoes, propelling them forward with astonishing speed, much swifter than our whaleboats with six oars pulled by our most vigorous tars. These are called war-canoes, and many of them have very curiously carved heads and sterns, which rise from one to three feet above the hull, not unlike the fashion of the New-Zealanders. Their paddles are generally four feet in length, with blades about six inches wide, the whole very neatly finished off with carved work, admirably executed.page 371
Their sails for the single canoes are made, like their own garments, of a beautiful long grass, which they have the art of weaving into a strong substantial cloth. These sails are shaped like what is called a 'shoulder of mutton,' and used in the following manner: The mast stands exactly perpendicular in the centre of the canoe, being from twelve to eighteen feet in height. At the head of this mast is hoisted a yard, proportioned to the size of the canoe, from twenty-five to thirty-five feet in length. The sail spreads this yard, and when hoisted at the masthead its foot sweeps the gunnel of the canoe. These sails are set in such a manner that the canoes never need go in stays when beating to windward, being so constructed as to go either end foremost. When they wish to go on the other tack, she suddenly falls off until the other end of the boat becomes the head, and luffs up to the wind; by which time the men have raised the tack on the depressed end of the yard, and brought its opposite extremity down to the other end of the boat. Thus she hugs the wind on either side by turns, without ever looking directly in its teeth.
I have seen these boats going at the rate of eight miles an hour, within four points of the wind. But let them run large, or before the wind, with a strong breeze, and I have no doubt but they will go at the rate of twelve or thirteen miles an hour in smooth water. By only shifting the sail, with a side wind, these canoes will pass, back and forth, between two islands, each end alternately foremost, with great rapidity, without the necessity of putting about. The sails are made in small pieces of about three feet square, sewed together. In cutting the sail to its proper shape, the pieces which come off one side answer to go on the other; this gives it the proper form, and causes the halliards to be bent on in the middle of the yard.
These hewn-out hulls with single wide top-strakes sewn on, and carved head and stern pieces, remind us of New Zealand craft. The straight side to leeward acted as a lee-board: this is seen in the Indian Archipelago, but no such form is reported from Polynesia. It appears at the Gilbert Group. The sail appears to be that of the Fijian and Tongan Groups. Morrell does not mention the balance-platform in his account.
Arago tells us that no native of the Caroline Islands is allowed to marry until he has given proof of his dexterity in steering a proa: "For this examination a time is chosen when the sea is rather high. The candidate is placed at the sheet (for they steer their vessels entirely by the sails), and there, surrounded by reefs, and in the midst of foaming waves, he must make his proa sail a certain distance without allowing its balancer to touch the waves. I could not have believed that they possessed so much skill if I had not sailed in their vessels."
Dampier describes a form of proa seen by him at Mindanao, Philippine Isles, with what he calls an "outlayer" on each side. These were not true outriggers, but two projecting balance-platforms, one on either side, neither of which touched the water when the craft was on an even keel. "The boat is not flat on one side here, as at page 372Guam; but hath a Belly and Outlayers on each side; and whereas at Guam there is a little Boat fastened to the Outlayers, that lies in the Water, the Beams or Bamboos here are fastened traverse-wise to the Outlayers on each side, and touch not the Water like Boats, but one, three, or four foot above the Water, and serve for the Bargemen to sit and row and paddle on; the inside of the Vessel, except only just afore and abaft, being taken up with the apartments for the passengers. There run across the Outlayers two tire of Beams for the Paddlers to sit on, on each side of the Vessel. The lower tire of these Beams is not above a foot from the Water; so that, upon any reeling of the Vessel, the Beams are dipt in the Water, and the men that sit are wet up to their waste; their feet seldom escaping the water. And thus, as all our Vessels are Rowed from within, these are Paddled from without."
D'Urville's illustrations of canoes of the Caroline Group show a comparatively short outrigger, with a balance-platform on the opposite side. There is also a platform on the booms of a triangular form, which is formed by covering with rods not only the space between the two booms, but also the spaces between the booms and the two side braces or struts, which resemble those of the Vanikoro canoe. There appears to be a roofed cabin on each of the platforms. The ends of the canoe are much elevated. The sail is of the lateen form, with two yards, and the mast nearly upright; the paddle depict-page 373ed resembles the Maori form. The hold is open throughout its length, except at the middle. Another canoe, of a larger type, shows a narrow hull, long booms on which several longitudinal spars are lashed, and on these, immediately over the booms, other poles are lashed, apparently to strengthen the structure. The balance-platform, like those of Vanikoro, is not horizontal but tilted upwards. The latter carries an awning-like roof, and the boom platform a thatched cabin. The paddle shown is not of Maori form; it may be a steer-oar.
Canoes of the Ladrones
The swift proa or canoes of the Ladrones were described by Dampier as seen by him in 1686:—
The natives are very ingenious beyond any people in making Boats, or Proes, as they are called in the East Indies, and therein they take delight. These are built sharp at both ends; the bottom is of one piece, made like the bottom of a little Canoa [canoe], very neatly dug, and left of a good substance. This bottom part is instead of a keel. It is about twenty-six or twenty-eight foot long; the under part of this keel is made round, but inclining to a wedge and smooth, and the upper part is almost flat, having a very gentle hollow, and is about a foot broad. From hence both sides of the Boat are carried up to about five foot high with narrow plank, not above four or five inches broad, and each end of the Boat turns up round, very prettily. But what is very singular, one side of the Boat is made perpendicular, like a Wall, while the other side is rounding, made as other Vessels are, with a pretty full belly. Just in the middle it is about four or five foot broad aloft, or more, according to the length of the Boat. The Mast stands exactly in the middle with a long Yard that peeps up and down like a Mizen-yard. One end of it reacheth down to the end or head of the Boat, where it is placed in a notch that is made there purposely to receive it and keep it fast. The other end hangs over the stern. To this yard the sail is fastened. At the foot of the sail there is another small yard, to keep the sail out square, and to roll up the sail on when it blows hard: for it serves instead of a reef to take up the sail to what degree they please, according to the strength of the Wind. Along the belly-side of the Boat, parallel with it, at about six or seven foot distance, lies another small Boat, or Canoa, being a Log of very light Wood, almost as long as the great Boat, but not so wide, being not above a foot and an half wide at the upper part, and very sharp like a wedge at each end. And there are two Bamboos of about eight or ten foot long, and as big as one's Leg, placed over the great Boats side, one near each end of it, and reaching about six or seven foot from the side of the Boat, by the help of which the little Boat is made firm and contiguous to the other…. The use of them is to keep the great Boat upright from oversetting, because the Wind being in a manner constantly East, and the Range of these Islands, where their business lies to and fro, being mostly North and South, they turn the flat side of the Boat against the Wind upon which they sail, and the belly-side, consequently, with its little Boat, is upon the Lee, and the Vessel page 374having a Head at each end, so as to sail with either of them foremost, indifferently, they need not tack, or go about, as all our Vessels do, but each end of the Boat serves either for head or stern as they please. When they ply to windward, and are minded to go about, he that steers bears away a little from the Wind, by which means the stern comes to the Wind, which is now become the head, only by shifting the end of the yard. This Boat is steered with a broad Paddle instead of a Rudder.
I have been the more particular in describing these Boats, because I do believe they sail the best of any Boats in the World. I did here for my own satisfaction try the swiftness of one of them; sailing by our Log, we had twelve knots on our reel, and she run it all out before the half-minute glass was half out; which, if it had been no more, is after the rate of twelve mile an hour; but I do believe she would have run twenty-four mile an hour.
The native Indians are not less dexterous in managing than in building these Boats. By reports, they will go from hence to another of the Ladrones Islands, about thirty leagues off, and there do their business, and return again in less than twelve hours. I was told that one of these Boats was sent Express to Manila, which is above 400 leagues [about 480 leagues, says Burney], and performed the Voyage in four days' time.
There are of these Proes, or Boats, used in many places of the East Indies, but with a Belly, and a little Boat on each side.
According to the above writer, these Ladrone craft had their sides built up with a series of narrow planks, and not with one wide one. The practice of reducing sail in a high wind here described does not seem to have been known in Polynesia, where, as in New Zealand, a sail of the ra kautu type could only be used in its entirety. "They turn the flat side of the boat against the wind" seems to be a reversal of the usual mode, and is possibly an error. These are said to be the swiftest sailing-craft in the world.
In the account of Magellan's sojourn at the Ladrones in 1521 occurs the following remarks on canoes seen there: "Their canoes had lateen sails (in shape resembling a shoulder of mutton) and each had an outrigger—i.e., a light boom or pole running in the water parallel to the canoe—with which it is connected, and preserved in its parallel position by transverse small poles securely fastened to each. The outrigger, by its weight and buoyancy, keeps steady the canoe, which, being a vessel of light and narrow construction, would, without such support, be in constant danger of oversetting. The canoes of these islanders were built alike at both ends, which enabled them to go with either foremost; and they sailed with great swiftness. They were variously and fancifully painted, and the largest that came off would not carry more than ten men."
Canoes of Guam illustrated in D'Urville's Voyage show an outrigger very nearly as long as the canoe, with which it is directly connected by means of two curved booms.
Canoes of Pelew Islands
In his Account of the Pelew Islands, Captain H. Wilson writes as follows: "They were, like most other canoes, made from the trunk of a tree dubbed out, but our people, who had often seen vessels of this sort in many other countries, thought those of Pelew surpassed in neatness and beauty any they had ever met with elsewhere…. They were painted red both within and without, and inlaid with shells in different forms. When they went out in state, the heads and sterns were adorned with a variety of shells strung on a cord, and hung in festoons. The smallest vessel that they built could hold four or five people, the largest were able to contain from twenty-five to thirty. They carried an outrigger, but only on one side, and used latine sails made of matting." This writer speaks of seeing a fleet of upwards of three hundred of these canoes, which "formed a most beautiful and splendid appearance."