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The Maori Canoe

Appendix I — Names of Parts of Maori Canoes, and of Objects, — Etc., Pertaining Thereto

page 422

Appendix I
Names of Parts of Maori Canoes, and of Objects,
Etc., Pertaining Thereto

Ahipua Fireplace in a canoe. See pakaiahi.
Ama 1. Outrigger. Syn. amatiatia, korewa. 2. Thwart. Syn. kiato, keretu, tau-manu, tauare, tauware. Waka ama=outrigger canoe.
Amatiatia 1. Outrigger. 2. Canoe with outrigger.
Aohamo A V-shaped piece of wood joining the sides and forming bow of canoe.
Arakauniho Bottom edge of top-strake.
Aroaro Slot or mortise of haumi join.
Aronui To sail directly before the wind.
Aukaha Lashings by which top-strakes, &c., are secured.
Aupounamu Extreme end of bow of a waka taua.
Awa Topsides of canoe. Syn. rauawa.
Awarua Space between thwarts where mast is stepped.
Haumi Attached piece by means of which the hull of a canoe is lengthened. See waka haumi, putara.
Haumi kokomo A haumi fitted to hull by means of mortise and tenon.
Haumi tauaro Stern haumi.
Haumi tuporo A haumi fitted to central part of hull by means of a butt join. See poro-harore.
Henga Upper edge or gunwale of sides of a canoe on which top-strake is secured. The true gunwale or upper edge of top-strake is the niao.
Herepuru Caulking material.
Hihi Curved wands or rods projecting from prow of a waka taua. Syn. ihiihi. See taroro, waka taroro, patungaro, karu atua.
Hipoki Awning-mats. Syn. huripoki.page 423
Hirau A paddle. The usual term is hoe. See hoe, urunga, urungi, hiwa.
Hiwa Steering-oar.
Hiwi Hull of a canoe. See kaunoti, kaunaroa.
Hoe A paddle. Also the verb "to paddle." See hirau, hiwa, urunga, urungi, &c.
Hoe matua A long controlling-oar.
Hoe piripiri Additional steer-oar.
Hoe tairanga (?).
Hoe takaki Paddle having a straight handle.
Hoewai A broad-bladed paddle.
Hoe whakaara Long paddles used as oars at the bow for the purpose of controlling the canoe.
Hoe whakahaere Steer-oars.
Hoe whakatere Steer-oars.
Hoe whakaumu (?).
Hokai 1. Booms of outrigger. Syn. kiato, toro. 2. Braces placed between double canoes.
Hourua A double canoe—waka hourua.
Huaki (?) Inward-looking figure on figurehead of a waka taua.
Huapae 1. Longitudinal spars of outrigger-frame. 2. Nga rakau huapae o te ra.
Huhunu 1. Double canoe. See unua, taurua, ma-hanga, waka hourua. 2. Temporary fore wash-strake. Syn. hunua.
Hune Caulking-material (pappus of seeds of Typha angustifolia). Syn. tahune, ta-huna, tahunga.
Hunua A double canoe.
Huripoki See hipoki, uhirau.
Ihiihi See hihi, taroro. The flat ornament at the end of a hihi is the patungaro.
Ihu Bow of a canoe.
Kaho 1. Longitudinal battens on framework of awning. 2. Generic term for battens covering join of top-strake. See taka, paewai.
Kahupapa A raft. See moki, mokihi, manaia.
Kaiahi Longitudinal pieces to which flooring of canoe is attached.page 424
Kaipuke European ships so termed. See puke, tuwhenua.
Kaiwae Grating or floor in canoe. Syn. raho, rahoraho, koraho.
Kakariki "Kua piri te kakariki o te niao."
Kaokao Sides of hull of canoe.
Kapuku Gunwale. Syn. kopuku.
Karaho Floor of a canoe.
Karawhi (?) A form of boat-rib.
Karemu Plug in kowhao or hole in bottom of a canoe. Syn. puru, koremu.
Katea Some form of brace in a canoe.
Kauawhi (?) Battens of awning roof.
Kauheka (?) Fore-and-aft gangway-plank on deep-sea outrigger canoe.
Kauhora takapau (?) Awning-mats.
Kauhau String-piece supporting the koraho, or floor. See whakawahine.
Kauhuahua String-piece supporting the koraho, or floor. See whakawahine.
Kaunaroa Main or central part of hull, not including haumi. See hiwi, kaunoti, kotore-puni.
Kaunoti Hull of a canoe, minus top-strakes. Syn. hiwi.
Kaupapa 1. Platform between double canoes. 2. Fleet of canoes. 3. Raft.
Kaupeka (?) Sprit or boom. (?) Yard and boom of lateen sail.
Kei Stern of a canoe. Syn. noko, ta.
Keretu Thwart of a canoe. Syn. taumanu, ama, kiato, tauware, tauare.
Kiato Thwart. For synonyms see keretu.
Kihau Sprit of sail.
Kiko, Whakakiko A plug-like patch.
Kohiwi Body of a canoe without attached parts.
Koki Small canoe of the tiwai class.
Komaru Sail. Syn. ra, mamaru, whakawhiti, whara, ra whara.
Koneke Carved design on bow of hull, under-neath. See toiere, parata.
Konia A small canoe.
Kopako A canoe with figurehead facing inwards.
Kopapa 1. Small canoe of tiwai class. 2. Surf-board.page 425
Kopiri A small canoe
Koraho Floor-grating of canoe. See kaiwae, karaho.
Korari A rude Moriori vessel. Syn. waka puhara.
Korea Small canoe of tiwai class. See koki, konia, kopapa, tiwai, koreti, &c.
Korehe A small canoe.
Korere (?) Outrigger. "Ka meatia nga korere e ma, kotahi mo tetahi taha, kotahi mo tetahi taha o te waka. Ko nga rakau korewa, he rakau mama rawa." ("The korere were then manipulated, or fixed, one on either side of the canoe. The float timbers were very light wood.")
Koreti A small canoe.
Korewa Outrigger. See also punga korewa, ama.
Korua A canoe-name.
Koruru A style of carving employed on taurapa (stern-pieces).
Kotokoto Sprit of a sail. Syn. takotokoto, tatakoto, titoko.
Kotore-puni Canoe-hull in one piece.
Kou Bunch of feathers on stern-piece. See puhi.
Koua Stern-piece of Moriori canoe, Chatham Isles.
Kowhao Holes pierced for lashings of top-strake, &c. See aukaha.
Kowhao matapupuni Holes pierced for lashings of top-strake, &c. See aukaha.
Kuru Tenon of haumi join (haumi kokomo). Syn. ure.
Kuwha Wings of a haumi mortise. Syn. paihau. See kuru, ure.
Mahanga A double canoe. See huhunu, taurua, unua, waka, hourua, unuku.
Mahau Awning over canoe used on deep-sea voyages.
Māhē Sea-anchor; a small stone anchor. See punga korewa.
Mamaru A canoe-sail. See ra, ra kautu, ra kaupaparu, ra whara, whara, whakawhiti, komaru.page 426
Manaia 1. A carved design on top-strakes. 2. A raft.
Marohi A single canoe—waka marohi.
Matangirua Denotes sailing and paddling at same time.
Matatara (?) Prow of canoe-hull. "Ko te parata kei runga tonu i te matatara o te tinana ake o te waka."
Matua Main part of hull.
Matutu Some part of the tauihu.
Mimiro Cf. mimira in Williams's Maori Dictionary, 5th ed. Syn. tanekaha. An implement used to tighten lashings.
Moki 1. Float; raft; rude float in form of canoe. 2. Surf-board.
Mokihi Syn. moki.
Motumotu-toroa (?).
Motu tawhiti European ship.
Neke Skid used in hauling canoes. Syn. rango.
Ngaro A skid. Syn. rango, neke See neke.
Ngongo Implies sailing close to the wind.
Ngongohau Bow of a canoe.
Niao Gunwale of a canoe.
Noko Stern of a canoe. Syn. kei, ta, paremata.
Otu Part of the pitau or taurapa.
Oa Top-strakes as detached timbers. See rauoa, owa awa, rauawa, pairi.
Owa 1. Thwart. 2. Top-strake.
Pae Transverse supports of the floor of a canoe.
Paemanu Thwart.
Paewai Inner batten covering join of top-strake. See taka.
Pahi A large seagoing canoe. See also waka pahi.
Pahua Top-strake (Rev. R. Taylor. No cor-roboration). Syn. tiwai.
Paihau Wings of haumi mortise. Syn. kuwha. See kuru, ure.page 427
Pairi 1. Fore wash-strake (Williams's Maori Dictionary). 2. Strake. "Ko nga pairi, ara rauawa, e wha i tetahi, e wha i tetahi taha, ka warn ai" (from "Story of Takitumu").
Pakipaki o te ra Ornamental border on top of sail.
Pakaiahi Fireplace in a canoe. See ahipua.
Pakoko Plain figurehead facing inwards. See whakaanga.
Pakokori Deck-house of a large (?double) canoe.
Pakura 1. A pattern of carving on top-strakes. 2. Projecting edge of top-strake.
Pakurukuru Plain figurehead of waka tete Syn. tete, pakoko.
Panoho Punting-pole. Syn. toko.
Papa-ara Some part of a canoe.
Papa kai ra Outer surface of side of canoe.
Papatahi Single canoe. See marohi.
Papatai 1. (?) Caulking-material of Typha leaves used in joins (J. White). 2. Outer surface of fore part of a canoe.
Papawai Outer surface of bottom of canoe.
Parata Carved design on under-side of prow. See toiere, koneke.
Pare arai wai parati Apparently some form of wash-strake or water-fender on a deep-sea canoe. See pare-ngaru, pairi.
Pare arai ai turuturu Apparently some form of wash-strake or water-fender on a deep-sea canoe. See pare-ngaru, pairi.
Paremata Stern of a vessel. See kei, ta.
Pare-ngaru 1. Wash-strakes. 2. Upright part of figurehead of a waka tete.
Parerua Having two masts and sails. See pererua.
Paretai Washboard.
Pātū Piece of wood at bow to which ends of top-strakes were secured.
Patua Syn. tiwai.
Pawai Bilge of a canoe.
Pepe Largest form of Moriori floats or raft canoes of Chatham Isles. Syn. waka pahi.
Pere Sail.
Pererua Canoe with two sails. Cf. parerua.
Pinaku A waka taua, or war-canoe. See pitau.page 428
Pitau Williams gives—1. Perforated carvingo 2. Figurehead of a canoe ornamented with perforated carving. 3. War-canoe with a figurehead representing the whole human figure. Also (apparently) 4. The scroll in carvings.
Pitau whakareia Figurehead of a canoe with arms turned backwards.
Pokai Battens covering joints (R. H. Matthews).
Pohinikini Carved design on end of paddle-handle.
Pora 1. A large seagoing canoe. 2. European ships. See puke, kaipuke.
Porea Canoe. See korea.
Poro-harore Butt join of haumi. See haumi tuporo.
Potikitiki Small grotesque human figures in canoe-carvings.
Poupou Shrouds of a canoe-mast.
Puhau (?)
Puhi Feather ornaments. Putoi=single small bunch of feathers. Puhipuhi=a number of putoi tied together. When used for this purpose the webs are stripped from the shaft adhering to a portion of the rachis, which is flexible. Thus rigidity is avoided when the putoi are formed.
Puhi ariki Feather ornaments on upper part of taurapa.
Puhi kai ariki Feather ornaments on upper part of taurapa.
Puhi moana ariki Feather ornaments on lower part of taurapa.
Puhi potae Feather ornaments on taurapa (stern-piece).
Puhi rere Feather ornaments on taurapa.
Puhoro A painted design on under-part of prow of canoe.
Puke 1. European ship. See kaipuke, tuwhenua, pora. 2. Denotes large canoe at some Pacific isles.
Punake Fore part of hull of canoe.
Puna wai Bailing-place; hole in floor-grating. See taingawai, taingariu.
Puneke (?)page 429
Punga Anchor.
Punga karewa Sea-anchor—the smaller stone anchor. See mahe, punga tarere.
Punga korewa Sea-anchor—the smaller stone anchor. See mahe, punga tarere.
Punga kowhao Stone anchor, pierced for cable attachment.
Punga tarere Sea-anchor. See punga korew.
Punga taupuru Heavy ground-anchor.
Punga whakawhenua Heavy ground-anchor.
Punga terewai Sounding-weight. Syn. punga tara.
Puraho Open part of taurapa.
Puremu Projecting timbers of Moriori canoe.
Purengi Stay of a mast. Syn. puwhenua.
Purere Tufts of feathers on battens of top strakes.
Puru Plug in bottom of canoe. Syn. karemu.
Purupuru 1. Caulking-tool. Syn. turn. 2. Caulking-material.
Putara Haumi attached at forward end of hull.
Putere A raft.
Putiki The maunga taura, a projecting piece of wood in bottom of forward hold, left when hollowing out canoe as a place to attach hauling-ropes to.
Puwhenua Stay of a mast. Syn. purengi.
Ra Sail of a canoe. Syn. komaru, matnaru, whakawhiti, whara.
Ra kaupaparu Lateen sail, rigged with mast, sprit, and boom.
Ra kautu Upright triangular sail, attached to mast and sprit.
Ra poto whaiti Syn. Ra turuturu matua.
Ra tauaka Smaller after-sail of a parerua.
Ra tiaka (tianga) Mat sail. (South Island.)
Ra turuturu matua Mainsail. The largest sail of a parerua, forward of ra tauaki.
Ra whara Sail of canoe.
Raho The floor-grating of a canoe. Syn. koraho, kaiwae.
Rahoraho The floor-grating of a canoe. Syn. koraho, kaiwae.
Raiawa Syn. rauawa.
Rakau Mast of a canoe. Syn. rewa, tira, tiratu, toko, tokotu.
Rango Skid used in hauling canoe. Syn. ngaro, neke.page 430
Rapa Stern-piece. Syn. taurapa.
1. Stern of a canoe. Syn. kei, noko. See paremata. 2. Bailer. Syn. tata, tiheru.
Tahatu Upper end of a sail.
Tahuna Caulking-material (pappus of seeds of Typha angustifolia). Syn. hune.
Tahunga Caulking-material (pappus of seeds of Typha angustifolia). Syn. hune.
Taingariu Bailing-place in a canoe. Syn. puna wai.
Taingawai Bailing-place in a canoe. Syn. puna wai.
Taitua 1. Space between thwarts. See whariu, tauware, wa patiki. 2. "Ahakoa kua horo nga rauawa kei raro, me nga taka, me nga taitua," &c.
Taka Outer batten covering join of top-strake. See paewai, pokai, tokai, kaho.
Takaki Paddle having a straight handle—hoe takaki.
Takaore A rope cringle or ring used as a step or containing-agent for certain spars. Syn. takauru.
Takere Keel of a canoe. Syn. tangere.
Taketake Lower end of a sail.page 431
Takiato Cross-supports for the raho.
Takotokoto Sprit of a sail. Syn. titoko, tatakoto, kotokoto.
Taku Gunwale.
Tanekaha Implement for tightening lashings. Syn. mimiro.
Tangere Keel of a canoe. Syn. takere.
Tao waka Ballast; lading.
Tararo Canoe adorned with plumes, carving, &c.
Taratahi A single canoe. (South Island.)
Taroro Possibly another name for the hihi of a superior canoe.
Tătā A bailer. Syn. tiheru.
Tata tarawai (?)
Tatakoto Sprit of a sail. Syn. titoko, kotokoto, takotokoto.
Tauare Thwart. Syn. tauware, taumanu, keretu, ama, kiato.
Tauihu Figurehead or prow-piece of a canoe.
Taumanu Thwart. Syn. tauware, tauare, keretu, ama, kiato.
Taumua The fore haumi.
Taupa karekare wai Some form of wash-strake or water-fender rigged on deep-sea vessels.
Taupopoki Some part of fore end of canoe.
Taura ripi Said to be the name of a rope used in manipulating outrigger. (No corro-boration.)
Taura whakaara Forestay. See purengi, puwhenua, waewae, tukuroa.
Taurapa Stern-piece of a canoe.
Tauroto Stern-piece of a canoe.
Tauru A skid. Syn. neke.
Taurua Double canoe. Perhaps only applied to a temporary joining of two canoes. See huhumu, mahanga, unua, unuku, waka hourua.
Tauware 1. Thwart. See taumanu. 2. Space between thwarts. See whariu, wa patiki, taitua.
Ta wai Bailer.
Tawai Syn. tiwai.page 432
Tawe Weight on a cable.
Tawharau Canoe-shed.
Teke Some part of the stern of a canoe.
Tete 1. A plain figurehead. See waka tete. 2. (?) A design in carving.
Tiheru A bailer Syn. tata.
Tira Mast. Syn. tiratu, rewa, rakau.
Tiratu Mast.
Titoko Sprit of sail. Syn. tatakoto, kotokoto, takotokoto.
Tiwai Hull of a canoe. See waka tiwai.
Toiera A carved design on figurehead (according to Mohi Turei).
Toiere Design carved on under-part of prow. Syn. koneke, parata. See waka toiere.
Tŏkai Uprights in canoe supporting the kau-huahua, on which the floor rests.
Toko Mast or sprit.
Toko Punting-pole. Syn. panoho.
Tokotu 1. Masts. 2. Stanchions of mahau.
Toro Boom of outrigger. Syn. hokai.
Torowhiti Cross-rods of awning-roof. Syn. whiti, whiti-tu.
Tuangi Projecting upper part of top-strake.
Tuataka Batten over join of top-strake.
Tuki A canoe having no figurehead or stern-piece, according to one authority. Mohi Turei seems to apply it to a first-class canoe.
Tukuroa Backstay. See taura whakaara, purengi, puwhenua, waewae.
Tungauru Platform at stern used as a seat.
Tupa Pads of raupo (Typha) on joins of figurehead.
Turn Caulking-tool. Syn. purupuru.
Turuturu kauawhi (?) Brace or rib inside canoe.
Tuwhenua European ships so termed. See puke, kaipuke. Said to be the name of some ancient form of vessel known to Maori (doubtful).
Uhirau Covering-mats of awning. See huripoki.
Unua A double canoe—waka unua. See hu-hunu, mahanga, taurua, waka hourua.page 433
Unuku A double canoe.
Ure Tenon of haumi join. Syn. kuru.
Urunga Seer-oar. Syn. hoe whakatere.
Urungi Seer-oar. Syn. hoe whakatere.
Utuutu matua Bailing-well.
Waewae Shrouds of mast. See purengi, pu-whenua, taura whakaara, tukuroa.
Waha Sheet of a sail.
Waihape To beat against the wind.
Waihapehape To beat against the wind.
Waka Canoe; also trough, box, &c.
Waka ama Outrigger canoe.
Waka haumi 1. A canoe the hull of which is formed of more than one piece. See kotore-puni. 2. Tender; canoe used for carrying sea-stores.
Waka hourua A double canoe. See huhunu, mahanga taurua, unua, unuku.
Waka koporo Canoe with square cut-off stern.
Waka mamae Canoe employed in an expedition of blood vengeance, or a canoe of a chief broken up at his death, part of which would probably be used as a mortuary memorial.
Waka maori Native canoe.
Waka marohi Single canoe. See papatahi.
Waka pahi A form of the curious Moriori canoe-like floats. See korari, waka puhara, waka ra, waka rimu.
Waka pakoko A canoe with figurehead on which the carved head faced inwards. See pakoko, whakaanga.
Waka pitau A superior canoe. See under pitau.
Waka puhara One form of Moriori canoes (so called) of Chatham Isles. Syn. korari. See waka ra, waka rimu.
Waka ra A form of Moriori canoe.
Waka rimu A Moriori form.
Waka taroro Applied by Mohi Turei to a high-class canoe, apparently because adorned with a taroro.
Waka taua War-canoe; superior type.page 434
Waka tete Second-class canoe, with plain figure-head.
Waka tiwai Third-class canoe; a small type, having no top-strakes or ornamental work.
Waka toiera According to Mohi Turei, a canoe of waka taua class having the toiera design or style of carving on its figurehead. Cf. toiere.
Waka toiere A canoe having a toiere carved on its prow.
Waka tokau A canoe without adornment such as carved attachments.
Waka totokau A canoe without adornment such as carved attachments.
Waka unua Double canoe. See huhunu, mahanga, taurua, unua, unuku, waka hourua.
Waka whakarei A superior canoe adorned with carved designs.
Waka whakarei papatahi A single canoe so adorned.
Waka whakarei unua A double canoe so adorned.
Wa patiki Space between thwarts. Perhaps applied to any enclosed or confined space. See taitua, tauware, whariu.
Whakaanga Inward-facing figure of figurehead. See pakoko.
Whakaheke To sail directly before the wind. See aronui, rere paepae, waihape.
Whakakiko Patch on a canoe, let in like a plug. See rau tawake.
Whakaparata Lower part of figurehead resting on parata.
Whakarei Williams gives—1. Carved work at the head and stern of a canoe. 2. Canoe with elaborately carved figurehead, bust, and arms. See waka whakarei.
Whakareia See pitau whakareia.
Whakawahine Apparently another name for the kauhua.
Whakawhiti Sail of a canoe. See komaru, mamaru, ra, whara.
Whara A pad of raupo leaves covering join of top-strake.
Whara Sail of a canoe. See komaru, mamaru, ra, whakawhiti.page 435
Whariu Space between thwarts. See taitua, tauware, wa patiki.
Whiti Rods secured to uprights and extending across canoe as support for awning. See torowhiti.
Whiti-tu Rods secured to uprights and extending across canoe as support for awning. See torowhiti.
Whitirea A rope used in manipulating a sail, probably the lateen sail.
The following have been culled from Williams's Maori Dictionary:—
HaoTo steer a canoe to starboard.
Hoe wakaDenotes the crew of a canoe.
HukereTo paddle with vigorous strokes.
IhoThe principal person in a canoe.
KaihautuFugleman of a canoe.
KaitukiFugleman of a canoe.
KakeTo beat to windward in sailing.
KaumoanaA mariner—member of a crew.
KoropeTo turn a canoe by using the paddle at the stern, reaching out and drawing the paddle towards the side.
RautuDenotes a sharp keel.
TapuakaA knot for holding the anchor of a canoe; a clove hitch secured by knotting the ends over a rod used for lifting the anchor.
TirauTo draw a canoe sideways with the paddle.
TititaiFugleman of a canoe.
Whakairi matamataTo keep a canoe head to the wind.
WhakakakeTo beat to windward in sailing.