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Maori Religion and Mythology Part 2

Myths Pertaining to Pounamu or Greenstone

Myths Pertaining to Pounamu or Greenstone

The various kinds of stone grouped under the name of pounamu by the Maori, and under that of greenstone by us, were prized by the Maori in former times. In the case of nephrite one may say that this mineral was viewed much as precious stones are by us; it was highly esteemed as material whereupon to fashion implements, and also ornaments. Coming from the isles of Polynesia, where no such stone was available, where, in some cases, adzes had to be fashioned from shell, the discovery of nephrite in New Zealand must have been looked upon as a matter of great importance. Under these circumstances we may expect to find that there were beliefs and myths connected with pounamu, and that expectation is realised in the following pages.

The origin of greenstone, sayeth the Maori, lies far back in the night of time, close to the beginning of things. In tracing that origin we have to seek it under the name of Poutini, who is looked upon as the origin or personified form of greenstone. Now Poutini was one of the offspring of Tangaroa, who was, as we have seen, one of the very numerous sons of Rangi and Papa, or Sky and Earth. Here then we find the source of greenstone, and that source was of the progeny of Tangaroa, who represents all fish. It is interesting to note that, in olden folk tales, greenstone is alluded to as a fish (ika), and it was this description that so puzzled Captain Cook. In the account of his third voyage he alludes to the trade in greenstone that was carried on throughout the North Island. Later he remarks "…we were told a hundred fabulous stories about this stone, not one of which carried with it the least probability of truth, though some of their most sensible men would have us believe them. One of these stories is, that this stone is originally a fish, which they strike with a gig in the water, tie a rope to it, and drag it to the shore, to which they fasten it, and it afterwards becomes stone. As they all agree that it is fished out of a large lake, or collection of waters, the most probable conjecture is, that it is brought from the mountains, and page 449deposited in the water, by the torrents." (See Cook—A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, vol. 1, pp. 139-140, Dublin, 1786). Cook's conjecture was a good one, inasmuch as the Maori was wont to seek float pieces in stream beds, and all the old, unworked, family heirloom blocks I have seen were waterworn.

In one recital we meet with the peculiar statement that greenstone was originally a stone, but later became a fish, possibly this was when it crossed the seas to New Zealand. Another statement is to the effect that, when obtained, greenstone is soft, but gradually hardens. A similar popular belief is met with in China, (see Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 13, p. 193). One quaint old folk lore repository of Matatua district told me that Poutini the origin of greenstone is one and the same as Poutini the star. His people are the greenstone folk, a people who descended from the heavens and dwelt at Hawaiki, but in later times came to New Zealand. These greenstone folk were persons of importance and they had many chiefs. They were attacked here and lost a number of their people, who were slain, which was a benefit to the Maori people. These slain and captured greenstone folk represent blocks of greenstone acquired by the Maori and famous greenstone artifacts. Greenstone is often alluded to as the whatu o Poutini or "stone of Poutini", also as the ika a Ngahue, or "fish of Ngahue". One old tale speaks of greenstone as having been alive, and, when caught it was cooked in an oven, possibly with a view to hardening it.

Another old dictum is that greenstone originated with, or belonged to, one Hine-tuapapa, who has already been referred to in these pages. In a recital of these myths occurs the expression "Na Hine-tuapapa te ika nei a te pounamu"—This fish, the pounamu, originated with Hine-tuapapa. This dame is evidently such another as Rakahore, a personified form of rock.

family tree

Tutaku of Tuhoe gave Poutini as a descendant of that Whaitiri whom we have lately discussed.

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A kind of greenstone known as pungapunga is unknown to the writer, but, like the tahakura stone, it was held to possess certain supernormal attributes. Auguries were, in some way, derived from these stones; they foretold future mishaps, disasters, dangers.

There is another source of greenstone that should be mentioned here, and it is to be found in the story of Hina or Hine-te-iwaiwa and Tinirau. When the two wives of Tinirau maltreated Hine, she retaliated by destroying them, in one version she effects her purpose by means of black magic, but in another she slew them by throwing stones at them. At the same time the stone missiles had been rendered effective by a certain charm that Hine had recited over them. Now when these stones struck the two women their bodies at once broke open, to disclose the interesting fact that both were full of greenstone. One marvels as to how this tale originated; perchance it may hinge upon the two beliefs that greenstone was originally a fish, and that Tinirau was a master or lord of fish; his task was the breeding or preservation of fish in ponds, and his very name carries the meaning of "numberless" or "multitude".

We must now see how greenstone came to this land of Aotearoa, for, as the Maori will tell you, it did not originally exist here. It seems that trouble arose in the home of Tinirau in far Hawaiki, where the greenstone fish, that is to say Poutini, dwelt. Several causes of dissension are given, but the principle one seems to have been that constant antagonism existed between Poutini (greenstone) and Hine-tuahoanga. This enmity seems to have been inevitable, inasmuch as the task of the Sandstone Maid is to lacerate, rasp and dissever the body of Poutini. So it was that Poutini fled from Hawaiki to seek a refuge in far lands, and the following narrative tells us how the Sandstone folk followed him and forestalled him in occupying certain places at Aotea.

"Pounamu is a stone of a supernatural nature; at one time it was a stone, at another time a fish. It is said that a quarrel was the cause of the greenstone (pounamu) migrating hither from the Moana-Kura, which is situated across the great ocean, and the quarrel was over that sea or lake itself. Tutunui was endeavouring to gain possession of it as an abiding place for his offspring, for the kuku (mussel), the paua (Haliotis) and other such fish; which act angered Poutini, Tauira-karapa, Kahotea and Whatukura, chiefs of the greenstone people. Then Tutaua assembled the multitudes of Hine-tuahoanga and Whatuaho (all varieties of page 451sandstone), and by these were the greenstone folk defeated at Te Auiti. Hence they fled, and were pursued right across the ocean to this land. On arriving at Tuhua (Mayor Island) in the Bay of Plenty, they found it already occupied by the offspring of Whatuaho, that is by tuhua (obsidian). Now the fleeing greenstone folk pressed on southward by way of the East Coast. At Waiapu they intended to proceed inland and settle at Hukurangi (a variant form of the name of Mt. Hikurangi), but found already located there the offspring of Tuahoanga and Whatuaho, that is sandstone and waiapu (a form of chert found in the Waiapu district). Again the pounamu fled, and, on arriving off Waipiro, made survey of that part, but found the offspring of Tuahoanga dwelling at Pokurukuru. When they arrived at Uawa, they found the offspring of Tuahoanga and Whatuaho at Tieke-tangaroa, where they were detected on account of their skins gleaming redly in the sunlight. The fugitives then came right on to Turanga without halting, but when proposing to rest there they saw Tuahoanga dwelling at Te Oikarewa and Waimata. Edging away from here they came to Nukutaurua, which they examined, but saw one Takamaitahu there, one of the offspring of Whatuaho. They came on to Heretaunga, and cautiously lay offshore; but Takamaitahu and Tongarire, sons of Whatuaho were seen abiding on Te Poho o Ruahine, hence they came on, still by sea, only to find on reaching Whareama, the offspring of Tuahoanga lying at Oruhi (the sandstone of Oruhi supplied the natives of Wairarapa in former times with their grinding stones, cutters, rasps, etc.). Again the fugitives fled, and now passed over to the South Island. Poutini scoured the land and noted the pleasant and healthful odour thereof; whereupon he remarked—'We will abide here.'

"Just as these greenstone folk were landing, the hostile force of Ngahue, Rongokahi and Tutaua arrived and attacked them, whereupon they fled and became scattered in their flight. The party with Poutini, Raparapa-te-uira, Kahotea and Koukoumatua pressed on, but some were slain as they fled, and, on reaching Arahura, they fled for shelter to a cascade, where no one could get at them. The guardian of the cascade, the moa, was slain (by Ngahue) and Ngahue and his party returned to the other island and never came back hither.

"A chief of the greenstone folk, named Te Rama-apakura, was slain by Whironui with a spear. When Whironui saw Te Rama-apakura in flight, he seized his spear named Te Pae-irirangi and performed the ceremony called hoa over it. Having first soaked page 452his spear in water, he took it up in his left hand and with his right hand dipped up water and sprinkled it on the point of the spear, while chanting the following ritual:

"Taku rakau nei ko Te Pae-irirangi
He tipua, he tahito, he akuanga (?akonga) nau, e Tane-irihia
Taku rakau he atua toro nau, e Tane-whirikaha
He ngatoro nau, a Tane-matua
Oi whiwhia, oi rawea
Taku ika a Te Rama-apakura e ki tenei atua
Ngatata o kauwae, ngatata o niho
Haruru mai ki tenei atua
Tu mauri ora ki tenei atua

Then the spear was cast and Te Rama-apakura was slain, while this slaying of the greenstone folk became known as Te Mataaho. Many of them are said to have been destroyed or seriously injured by the Fire of Huhi through the agency of Taranga-kahutai, hence the peculiar appearance of some kinds of greenstone, light coloured marks and dark spots like charcoal; this occurred at Reporoa.

"Ngahue attempted to spear some of the greenstone folk; but his weapon was powerless, as the hoa charm had not been recited over it, hence Poutini kept diving under water and was not wounded. Then Poutini irritated the wheke of Muturangi and the waters became turbid so that Ngahue could see nought therein. Then Tutaua lunged with his spear, as he quoted his saying:—"Haere te ika a Ngahue, kapakapa te ika a Tu", and thus perished Pungapunga, said to be a light coloured kind of greenstone, the wife of Poutini."

The name Tuahoanga, mentioned above, is an abbreviated form of Hine-tuahoanga. The fleeing greenstone found sandstone and other enemies already residing at places whereat it desired to settle down, and so it was compelled to move on to the South Island. In other versions Ngahue is said to have conducted Poutini to these shores and then returned to Hawaiki. The greenstone refugees eventually found a haven at Arahura, on the western coast of the South Island. The so-called chiefs of the greenstone folk said to have been slain bear the names of certain famed heirlooms, greenstone implements and ornaments. Ngahue is said to have slain a moa at a cascade up the Arahura River, and to have taken some of its flesh, and pieces of greenstone back to Hawaiki. This item really belongs, not to the above myth, but to the tradition of the coming of Kupe and Ngahue to this land and their discovery of greenstone at Arahura.

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We are told that Ngahue, on his return to Hawaiki, that is to the isles of Polynesia, informed the people of those parts that greenstone and the moa were the most remarkable products of this island of Aotea.

In several accounts Ngahue is spoken of as the enemy of Tuahoanga and guardian of the greenstone folk. In some published versions Ngahue is said to have killed the moa at a place named Te Wairere, but our best native authorities claim that it is not a place name, that Ngahue killed the moa at a wai rere (cascade or waterfall) up the Arahura river. This story has been transferred to Whakatane (by us) because there is a waterfall thereat known as Te Wairere.

The Tutunui mentioned in the above story was a tame whale under the protection of Tinirau, it appears in the story of Kae. Tauira-karapa and Kahotea are names of two kinds of greenstone. Whatukura is a term used to denote highly prized or tapu stones. This concept of sandstone assailing greenstone is of course based on the fact that sandstone was used by man to reduce pieces of greenstone to desired forms. To make a thorough job of his myth the Maori has personified the various kinds of stone. A force of the Sandstone Folk was raised to attack Poutini, greenstone, and so Poutini fled hither to Aotearoa, but on arriving here Poutini found that Tuahoanga, Tuhua, Mata, and Waiapu (i.e., sandstone, obsidian and chert) had already arrived and settled at Mayor Island (Tuhua) and many places on the coastline. Thus greenstone was unable to find a resting place at Waiapu, Waipiro, Uawa, Turanga, Nukutaurua, Heretaunga, and Whareama. In the South Island the greenstone refugees were attacked and some of them were slain, this was the cause of their taking refuge in the turbulent waters and rough bed of the Arahura river on the west coast. In some versions it is Ngahue who conducts Poutini, the greenstone, to these shores, but in the one given above Poutini conducts the greenstone refugees hither, while Ngahue pursues and attacks them.

The Hine-huhi mentioned in the fabulous chronicle is the personified form of swamps; fabulous with a vengeance, for we are told that the greenstone tiki made from the captured or slain greenstone pertained to the time of Tane. Moreover from this same greenstone of New Zealand was made the famous adze Awhiorangi, used in cutting the props used to support Rangi when sky and earth were separated in the days when the world was young. We thus see that little Aotearoa was well to the front page 454in the stirring times of hoary antiquity, when mighty forces rent the world asunder, and fame was any god's!

As for the greenstone that got burnt in those fierce conflicts of the misty past, it is known by its appearance, by the black and light-coloured patches in it.

Another brief recital states that greenstone, Hine-tuahoanga, and Te Whatu-tongarerewa (a stone name) were all offspring of Tanga-roa. Whatu-tongarerewa was a female who was taken to wife by Paretao (a stone name), an arrangement objected to by her brothers Tauira-karapa, Te Rama-apakura and Whakarewa-tahuna, because they feared the eyes of Paretao. Then Paretao enlisted the services of Ngahue and Tunui (?Tutunui) and so strife began.

In a brief sketch which I collected, the Sandstone Maid follows Ngahue and his greenstone charge to Aotearoa, and leaves Tuhua (obsidian) at Mayor Island, and Waiapu (chert) at the district of that name. We are also told that, when Ngahue returned to Tawhiti, he took the best greenstone with him and left here the inferior kinds. Tools were fashioned from greenstone taken overseas by Ngahue wherewith were hewn out the vessels by which the later immigrants came to New Zealand. Yet again the greenstone 'chief' Poutini is said to have taken refuge in the poho o Tuaropaki at Arahura, whatever that may be, possibly a hill name.

Perhaps the first account of this myth that was published was that contributed by Colenso to the Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science of 1846. The writer tells us that natives maintained that greenstone was formerly a fish and that it possessed supernatural attributes; one is inclined to place some faith in this statement when told that it came hither from the isles of Polynesia. We are also told that a number of charms and ceremonial performances pertained to the seeking and taking of greenstone in stream beds of the Arahura district. Wild tales have been told of the dangers encountered in such activities. Natives told Colenso that, when that fish, the greenstone, reached Tuhua island it saw the paretao stone there showing its teeth, and so passed on southward. Again, at Takiritane, between Whareama and Motuairaka (?), it saw the takiritane form of sandstone showing its teeth, hence it moved on to Arahura (Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science, vol. 2, p. 215).

The version given in Grey's Mythology and Traditions pp. 68-9 gives us nothing new of any note, save that it makes Waiapu (representing chert) a prominent enemy of Poutini.

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The Ngati-Porou folk tell us that Hine-waiapii (the Flint Maid) is the name of a block of waiapu stone lying at the mouth of the Waiapu river; it was placed there by Hine-tuahoanga in order to prevent Poutini settling in those parts. For Poutini had fled hither from Pikopiko-i-whiti pursued by Hine-tuahoanga, patron of the two "fish", Tuhua and Waiapu. Te ika a Ngahue, "the fish of Ngahue", is a name for Poutini, that is to say for greenstone. Poutini came to Whangaparaoa, but was still pursued, and so came to Te Araroa, whereat is a place where he lay, and that place is yet known at Kopua-pounamu. Hine-tuahoanga came on to Waipiro, where there is a block of hoanga (sandstone used as a grinding stone), called Pokurukuru. It was this stone that the greenstone feared, and so fled southward. The boulder named Hine-waiapu was viewed as the tino of the district, the river was named after it.

The late Aporo Te Kumeroa of Greytown obtained from the Arahura natives their version of the story of Poutini. In this recital Poutini appears as a woman, who, in olden times, lived at Tuhua island. She quarreled with her people there and so left the place, also leaving her brother Tama behind her. Curiously enough the quarrel is said to have been concerned with greenstone in some way. She landed at Kotore-pi, some twenty miles north of Greymouth. The canoe was baled out there—so greenstone is found at that place. The party then ascended the Arahura river, and at a waterfall under the Tara-o-Tama peak more greenstone was deposited.

Tama decided to go in search of his sister Poutini and used his magic dart in the quest; in this case he is credited with having cast it by means of a whip, as the tarerarera or kopere spear was thrown. In the first cast the dart descended at D'Urville Island, a long flight, the second carried it to Kotorepi, the third to Maitahi, at which place greenstone is also found. The flying dart at length led Tama up the Arahura river to his sister. His slave attendant here left a kokako bird cooking so long in an oven that it was quite charred, hence, we are told, the tutaekoka or black marks seen in some greenstone. This valued stone is found at a place where a deep pool lies below a waterfall, and those seeking to procure pieces of the stone have to swim across the pool. It was here also that the canoe of Poutini capsized and here that his companions were drowned.

The Tama referred to above is probably that Tama-ahua who is said to have made an expedition to the South Island to obtain greenstone. This story is one of confusion, when one scans the page 456different tribal versions thereof. Tama-ahua was an immigrant from Polynesia, who came, we are told, in the vessel Kurahaupo and settled at Oakura, Taranaki, apparently about seven centuries ago. He and his party set off in three canoes named Otauira, Potaka, and Whatupurangi; Tama and his two wives, or two of his wives, Hineahu and Aotea being in the first mentioned vessel. Hineahu had come from Hawaiki with Tama, she was so named because she was a native of the island of Ahu. On reaching Arakura the treasure seekers concealed their vessels and went up the river in search of greenstone. Tama and Hineahu had some disagreement over an attendant named Tuhua, the result being that the latter was slain by Tama. Pieces of the desired greenstone were found by Hineahu, and the various kinds were given distinctive names, the tangiwai kind was so named in remembrance of her crying, the kahurangi betokened her high rank, while the kawakawa commemorated Hine's wearing a chaplet of kawakawa leaves. We shall see that this naming of the various kinds of greenstone is also credited to the party of Kupe.

When Tama kindled a fire at Arahura that fire spread and burned a variety of greenstone known as kahotea, the light coloured patches in which are ashes from the fire kindled by Tama. Such is a brief account given by a Takitimu pundit., but the following story differs somewhat, and contains more detail.

"Hineahua represents the kahurangi variety of greenstone; she was a wife of Tama-ahua. The party went up the Arahura river, Tama-ahua, the principal man with his wife Hineahua from across the ocean; and Tuhua, the latter was slain by Tama-ahua, the cause being jealousy toward Hine-ahua. This was the woman who discovered the tangi-wai, Kahurangi, auhunga and kawakawa-rewa varieties of greenstone, and the huka-a-tai, and named them after herself, hence they were styled by her Hine-tangiwai, Hine-auhunga, Hine-kaurangi and Hine-kawakawa. She was the first woman who had neck pendants and ear pendants made to her order. The tangiwai was so named because Hineahua wept for her old home at Hawaiki; as she sat there, her tears flowed to the earth, hence the tangiwai was called Hine-tangiwai by Hine-ahua. The spotted appearance of the kahotea and kawakawa is owing to Tama-ahua generating fire, the sparks of the firestick fell on the repehina grass, the fire spread up Arahura and that district was devastated by fire, hence the kahotea and kawakawa were damaged, for those two were inland. Tangiwai was lying under the cascade, and Auhunga was piled up in the current of rushing waters, while Huka-a-tai was lying where those page 457waters flowed into the sea of Arahura; the auhunga was also found in a deep pool.

"The greenstone was discovered through Hine-ahua going to bathe, when lumps of stone were seen by her. The auhunga and huka-a-tai were so found by her. The Kahotea was found by Kupe, that is by his daughter Makaro, at the same place. She went to examine the appearance of the forest up the river and climbed up the bank, with her elder sisters Matiu and Matangihau, when the stone was found. Makaro cried: "O! My light coloured (kaho) stone." This kaho means the kakaho or culm of the toetoe [Arundo conspicua ] which in later times came to be called kakaho, but was formerly termed kaho. As to the full name of that greenstone it is connected with its discovery by Makaro, hence the name of that greenstone is kahotea. At that time it was a fine variety of greenstone, partly light coloured and partly green, the colours blending, a desirable stone.

"Matangihau discovered the kawakawa as exposed in the river bed. The chaplet of Matangihau was composed of kawakawa leaves [Macropiper excelsum ]; she exclaimed: "My stone; I will carry it to the canoe." She did so, and on reaching the camp, Kupe said: "Let it bear the name of your kawakawa chaplet."—hence the name of kawakawa by which it is called. Well now, after Kupe had returned to Rarotonga and Hawaiki, Toi-te-huatahi migrated hither, and after that Whatonga and others came. Now when burned by the fire of the fire stick of Tama-ahua, the kahotea and kawakawa were spoiled, they became spotted with cinders."

In the above account the name of Tama-ahua's wife is changed to Hineahua, and we see how greenstone was personified and assigned the female sex. A long period of time is supposed to have elapsed between the coming of Kupe and Tama-ahua.

A South Island version of the above story collected by Martin makes the female personifications wives of Tama-ahua, their names being given as Hina-ahuka, Hina-kawakawa, Hina-aotea, and Hine-tangiwai. These folk came to this land in a vessel named Tairea, while Tama followed them and endeavoured to find them by casting a magic dart. He so found Hina-tangiwai. Tama quarrelled with his attendant, one Tumuaki, alias Tuhua, and slew him, whereupon the earth was convulsed and a hill, now known as Tuhua, was found, from the top of which Tama saw the vessel Tairea and his other three wives all turned into stone. So we are told, but why should his wives suffer for their husband's page 458misdeeds; these Polynesian gods seem to have been but a haphazard lot in administering justice.

Another note on Tumuaki tells us that he perished not by the hand of man, but by those of the eccentric gods of the Maori. When engaged in breaking a boulder of greenstone he chanced to wound his finger, and then, in order to alleviate the pain of the wound, he thrust his finger into his mouth. That simple act sealed the fate of Tumuaki, who was transformed into a rock, which yet stands at that place, by his atua, Hauparoa, who was a brother of Maru. So it was that Tumuaki died as men die, albeit he yet endures, and so a hill up the Arahura river represents Tumuaki. It was the blood flowing from his wounded finger on to the stone that brought about the petrifaction of the heedless Tumuaki, all tapu objects call for extreme caution on the part of those who approach them, or touch them.

In a South Island narrative given by White our Tama-ahua is confused with one Tama-nui-a-rangi of the time of Rukutia and Tu-te-koropanga, who pertain to an old, old Polynesian tale. This Tama is said to have reached the Poutini district where greenstone exists, where he transformed one Timuaki into a hill. He then found some greenstone, which, in those days, possessed life, it was a living creature; he cooked some of it, and, on being heated, it exploded and so became scattered over the surrounding district.

In another version of this tale of Tama-ahua published in the Journal of the Polynesian Society, vol. 5, pp. 233-236, Tama-ahua is said to have gone south in search of his two wives, who had been taken away by Poutini, and Poutini had gone south owing to his dread of Tuhua. Here again Tama found the direction in which to travel by means of casting a magic dart, which, when thrown in the right direction, produced a loud sound. So he came to Arahura, where he found that his wives were dead, hence he decided to make an offering of cooked food to his gods as an act of placation, and so try to induce them to restore his wives to life. Here his attendant ruined the ceremony by interfering with tapu conditions, the burned finger episode, and so the hapless cook was slain and was himself cooked, and Tama's wives never regained life, they remained dead. Tama-ahua went to Taranaki, where he is now represented by a stone in a cave at Putakoura.

The Ngahue who appears in the foregoing recitals as a companion, or guardian, or enemy of the Greenstone Folk and other weird supernormal creatures, is the Ngahue of popular folk page 459tales; but in the superior version of the story of Ngahue, as preserved by the Takitimu people, he simply appears as a Polynesian voyager. When Kupe the voyager came to Aotearoa Ngahue came with him, but in a different vessel. Kupe is said to have been the first person to find greenstone here, and he probably flourished not less than twelve generations before the time of Tama-ahua. The following is a brief account of Kupe's visit to Arahura.

"Now Kupe set out to examine the South Island and to see if it was inhabited by man. So he arrived at Arahura; that place was so named by Kupe on account of his voyage of discovery, his looking for inhabitants, such was the origin of the name Arahura. Kupe was the first person to find the prized greenstone, and the first variety found by him was the inanga; which was so found through his seeing some inanga fish in the stream. They set about netting some of the fish, and Hine-te-uira stretched out her hand and picked a stone out of the water to serve as a sinker for the net, when it was seen to be a peculiar kind of stone. So that kind of stone was called inanga, and the name of Arahura was adopted for the river. That is sufficient explanation regarding the greenstone.

"The reason why I recited this part of the story was, lest any persons should falsely declare that greenstone is found in their islands, it is not so; this thing greenstone is the prized, much coveted stone of this island. It is called the whatu kaiponu because greenstone was held to be a special perquisite of highborn folk of both sexes, they alone might wear it; it was not meet that ordinary folk should possess that valued stone; such was the whatu kaiponu.

"Tutauru and Koukomatua are said to have been two adzes fashioned from the greenstone found by Kupe, the latter being a ceremonial implement that was 'waved' before the gods during certain rites."