The Endeavour Journal of Joseph Banks 1768–1771 [Volume One]
1. Very little wind and yet vast quantities of small birds are about the ship which has been to us a very uncommon sight in such fine weather; a Seal seen from the ship. Several peices of sea weed are taken and among them a peice of wood quite overgrown with sertularias;4 it must have been a long time at Sea yet more hopes are drawn from this than the sea weed, as we now have in our possession a part of the produce of our Land of Promise. Among the weed are many sea insects which are put into spirits weed wood and all, so we shall at least have this to shew. Several whales have been seen today.
4 Sertularia, a common hydroid.
5 Thetys vagina: cf. 6 September 1768.
6 Dagysa serena: Thalia democratica; see 2–4 September 1768.
3. Calm almost this morn. About 5 a sudden squall came on with such violence that the officer of the watch was obligd to settle the topsails, it did not however last above 5 minutes; this we look upon as a sure sign of land as such squalls are rarely (if ever) met with at any considerable distance from it. I go in the boat and kill Procellaria capensis, longipes and latirostris. In the course of the day several peices of sea weed are taken up of species very new and one peice of wood coverd with Striated Barnacles Lepas Anserina?11
Now do I wish that our freinds in England could by the assistance of some magical spying glass take a peep at our situation: Dr Solander setts at the Cabbin table describing, myself at my Bureau Journalizing, between us hangs a large bunch of sea weed, upon the table lays the wood and barnacles; they would see that notwisthstanding our different occupations our lips move very often, and without being conjurors might guess that we were talking about what we should see upon the land which there is now no doubt we shall see very soon.
1 D. polyedra: a nectophore of a siphonophore, probably Stephanomia rubra (Vogt), or perhaps Agalma elegans (Sars). See Parkinson III, pl. 36a. Solander, p. 511, gives only this record.
2 Probably Beroe ovata; see 12 January 1769.
3 B. coarctata: possibly a species of Lampelia. See Parkinson III, pl. 60b, for a drawing made on this day, and Solander, p. 433, for a description.
4 Probably Aequorea sp.; see 19 September 1769.
5 Parkinson in his Journal (p. 85), and Solander, p. 7, both give the wing span of this albatross as 10 ft 7 in., and Solander records its weight as 28 lb. Murphy discusses weights in this species and quotes a maximum of 20 lb (Oceanic Birds of South America, 1936, p. 543), from which it would appear that a slip has occurred in Solander's MS. His other weights for exulans are only 12 and 16 lb.
6 The gadfly petrels taken on 2 and 7 October were possibly distinct, since Solander remarks that they were somewhat larger and heavier than his other specimens of ‘P. velox’ (see 15 February 1769).
7 P. pallipes: the Grey Petrel or Pediunker, Adamastor cinereus (Gm.), which was described by Solander, p. 71.
8 P. latirostris: the Broad-billed Whale Bird, Pachyptila vittata Forster. See Solander, pp. 61–2, who gives only this record of the species.
9 P. longipes: the Grey-backed Storm Petrel, Garrodia nereis (Gould). There is no painting by Parkinson of this species although it was taken on four occasions; Solander described one specimen as P. saltatrix, p. 49, and four others as P. longipes, p. 63.
10 Puffinus griseus (Gm.), the Sooty Shearwater or Mutton-bird. Solander records this specimen; see 15 February 1769.
11 This was probably Lepas anserifera, which is a striped barnacle and which was recorded by Solander, p. 389, on 23 October; a slip has occurred over this date, as Solander gives the ship's position as 37° S and 171° 30° W, which is close to Cook's figure for 3 October but differs considerably from the position given by Cook on 23 and 24 October.
5. Our old enemy Cape fly away entertaind us for three hours this morn all which time there were many opinions in the ship, some said it was land and others Clouds which at last however plainly appeard. 2 Seals passd the ship asleep and 3 of the birds which Mr Gore calls Port Egmont hens, Larus Catarrhactes,3 and says are a sure sign of our being near land. They are something larger than a crow, in flight much like one, flapping their wings often with a slow motion; their bodies and wings of a dark chocolate or soot colour, under each wing a small broadish bar of dirty white which makes them so remarkable that it is hardly possible to mistake them. They are seen as he says all along the Coast of America and in Faulklands Isles; I myself remember to have seen them at Terra del Fuego but by some accident did not note them down. Just before sun set we were much entertaind by a shoal of Porpoises like those seen yesterday; they kept in sight of the ship for near an hour, all that while as if in hot pursuit of some prey, leaping out of the water almost over each other; they might be very justly compard to a pack of hounds in full cry only their numbers which were some thousands made them a much more considerable object; sometimes they formd a line near ¼ of a mile in lengh, sometimes contracted them selves into a much smaller compass, keeping the water wherever they went in a foam so that when they were so far from the ship that their bodys could not be distinguishd any man would have taken them for breakers.
1 There seems to be some slip here, as neither Banks nor Cook recorded porpoises on either 30 September or 30 August.
2 Possibly Pilot Whale, Globicephala sp. Since Cook was keeping nautical time, we some times find that the dates given by him and by Banks for the same observations do not agree. It is probable that Cook's note for 5 October, in which he gives a brief description of Lissodelphis perani, the Right Whale Dolphin, and mentions the presence of a larger species, covers this entry by Banks.
3 The southern form of the Great Skua. See 29 September.
4 This was Nicholas Young, on whom see Cook I, pp. ccxxxv, 173, 589.
Weather most moderate. We came up with it very slowly; at sun set myself was at the masthead, land appeard much like an Island or Islands but seemd to be large. Just before a small shark was seen who had a very piked nose something like our dog fish in England.1
7. This morn the Land plainly seen from the deck appears to be very large; about 11 a large smoak was seen and soon after several more, sure sign of inhabitants. After dinner dropd calm: myself in little boat shot Nectris munda2 and Procellaria velox,3 took with the dipping net Dagysa gemma4 and a good deal of Fucus,5 sertularia6 &c, the examination of which is postpond till we shall have more time than we are likely to have at present.
In the Evening a pleasant breeze. At sunset all hands at the mast head; Land still distant 7 or 8 leagues, appears larger than ever, in many parts 3, 4 and 5 ranges of hills are seen one over the other and a chain of Mountains over all, some of which appear enormously high.7 Much difference of opinion and many conjectures about Islands, rivers, inlets &c, but all hands seem to agree that this is certainly the Continent we are in search of.8
2 The Little or Allied Shearwater, Puffinus assimilis; or perhaps the Fluttering Shearwater, Puffinus gavia (Forster). See 15 February 1769 and 16 October below. This specimen was not recorded by Solander.
3 See 15 February and 30 August 1769. This was recorded by Solander.
4 Thalia democratica. See 2 October 1768.
5 Fucus is seaweed generally, or was in Banks's time.
6 Some form of polyzoan.
7 Probably this was the Huiarau range, which rises to 4500 feet at its highest point.
8 Several of the early charts of New Zealand by Pickersgill are entitled ‘A Chart of Part of the Southern Continent’ etc.
In the evening went ashore with the marines &c. March from the boats in hopes of finding water &c. Saw a few of the natives who ran away immediately on seeing us; while we were absent 4 of them attackd our small boat in which were only 4 boys, they got off from the shore in a river, the people followd them and threatned with long lances; the pinnace soon came to their assistance, fird upon them and killd the cheif. The other three draggd the body about 100 yards and left it. At the report of the musquets we drew together and went to the place where the body was left; he was shot through the heart. He was a middle sizd man tattowd in the face on one cheek only in spiral lines very regularly formd; he was coverd with a fine cloth of a manufacture totaly new to us, it was tied on exactly as represented in Mr Dalrymples book2 p. 63; his hair was also tied in a knot on the top of his head but no feather stuck in it; his complexion brown but not very dark.
Soon after we came on board we heard the people ashore very distinctly talking very loud no doubt, as they were not less than two miles distant from us, consulting probably what is to be done tomorrow.
1 The ‘paling’ was the stockading of a pa or fortified village.
2 This was the engraved ‘View of Murderers Bay in New Zeland’, in Dalrymple's Account of the Discoveries made in the South Pacifick Ocean, Previous to 1764, which he got from Valentyn's Oudt en Nieuw Oost-Indien.
1 This must have been the ordinary Maori fighting spear or tao, six to nine feet long.
2 No doubt the mere, one of the palu class of weapons. Cook and his men (and Banks himself later) generally referred to them as ‘Pattoo Pattoos’.
3 i.e. the small-sized ship's flag of the period, the ‘Union Jack’ incorporating the crosses of St George and St Andrew.
1 i.e. talc—nephrite or greenstone, sometimes referred to by Cook as jade.
2 Called Te Toka a Taiau—the rock of Taiau. It no longer exists, having been blasted out in the course of harbour works.
3 There is no lagoon there now; but the meandering course pursued by the Waipaoa river on that flat land could easily have produced one as the result of rain or the overflowing of an oxbow bend. There was a lagoon in the 1860's—but whether Banks's lagoon (if he indeed saw one) or not we do not know.
1 Cf. Cook's entry for this date (or rather for 10 October, p.m.), I, p. 171, and the drafts, which show his troubled conscience.
2 The nearest volcano inland was Ngauruhoe, in the centre of the island, which could hardly have been the origin of this pumice. It may have been carried round by the current from White Island, in the Bay of Plenty.
1 Te Hourangi or Haurangi, Ikirangi (Ko = it is), and Marukauiti.
2 There are several species of ducks in New Zealand, and nowadays the Gray Duck Anas superciliosa Gm. is the most common. Parkinson comments (Journal, p, 87), ‘Shot some wild ducks of a very large size’: as the Gray Duck is the largest New Zealand species, being almost as large as a mallard, and as it is common wherever there is water, even in intertidal inlets and estuaries, it is likely that this was the species taken.
As soon as we had retird and left him to himself he went and gatherd a green bough; with this in his hand he aproachd the body with great ceremony, walking sideways, he then threw the bough towards it and returnd to his companions who immediately sat down round him and remaind above an hour, hearing probably what he said without taking the least notice of us, who soon returnd to the ship. From thence we could see with our glasses 3 men cross the river in a kind of Catamaran1 and take away the body which was carried off upon a pole by 4 men.
1 By this Banks probably means a moki or mokihi, a raft generally made of bundles of flax stalks, often used in the absence of a canoe, though its life was short.
11. This morn We took our leave of Poverty bay1 with not above 40 species of Plants in our boxes, which is not to be wonderd at as we were so little ashore and always upon the same spot; the only time we wanderd about a mile from the boats was upon a swamp where not more than 3 species of Plants were found.
Weather this day was most moderate: several Canoes put off from shore and came towards us within less than a quarter of a mile but could not be persuaded to come nearer, tho Tupia exerted himself very much shouting out and promising that they should not be hurt. At last one was seen coming from Poverty bay or near it, she had only 4 people in her, one who I well rememberd to have seen at our first interview on the rock: these never stopd to look at any thing but came at once alongside of the ship and with very little persuasion cam[e] on board; their example was quickly followd by the rest 7 Canoes in all and 50 men. They had many presents given to them notwithstanding which they very quickly sold almost every thing that they had with them, even their Cloaths from their backs and the paddles out of their boats; arms they had none except 2 men, one of whom sold his patoo patoo as he calld it, a short weapon of green talk of this shape intended doubtless for fighting hand to hand and certainly well contrivd for splitting sculls as it weigh[s] not less than 4 or 5 pounds and has sharp edges excellently polishd.
1 Cook: ‘Poverty Bay because it afforded us no one thing we wanted’. Banks heads his pages with the native name Taoneroa, which he takes for the name of the bay (cf. II, p. 3 below). Te one roa = the long beach (one, beach or shore); Te Oneroa was the beach stretching westward from the Turanganui river.
1 Maori tattooing was incised, and not pricked as in the islands. Buck (The Coming of the Maori, p. 298) explains the affinity with wood-carving, in design and technique: ‘the main lines of the designs are deep or sunk below the surface so that the spaces between parallel lines appear as ridges, to some extent similar to the designs on wood…. the Maori tattooing artists took a further cue from the carving experts and ground down or sharpened some of their bone blades like an adze with a plain edge witnout teeth …. the toothed implements were used for filling in and for subsidiary motifs’. Cf. p. 495 below.
2 This was an ochre commonly obtained from streams or swamps in the form of mud coloured by oxide of iron: the mud was collected on fern fronds, moulded into balls and dried at a fire. But any red earth might be used. The oil was generally a vegetable oil, got from the berries of the tree called Titoki.
3 Probably Phormium tenax, the so-called New Zealand Flax, so important in the Maori textile crafts; but the leaves of the Kiekie, a sort of Freycinctia, and of the Ti (more than one variety of the Cordyline) were also used.
Their behavior while on board shewd every sign of freindship, they invited us very cordialy to come back to our old bay or to a small cove which they shewd us nearer to it.2 I could not help wishing that we had done so, but the captn chose rather to stand on in search of a better harbour than any we have yet seen. God send that we may not there have the same tragedy to act over again as we so lately perpetrated: the countrey is certainly divided into many small principalities3 so we cannot hope that an account of our weapons and management of them can be conveyd as far as we in all probability4 must go and this I am well convincd of, that till these warlike people have severly felt our superiority in the art of war they will never behave to us in a freindly manner.
About an hour before sunset the canoes left us, and with us three of their people who were very desirous to have gone with them but were not permitted to return to the Canoes. What their reason for so doing is we can only guess, possibly they may think that their being on board will induce us to remain here till tomorrow when they will return and renew the traffick by which they find themselves so great gainers. The people were tolerably chearfull, entertaind us with dancing and singing after their custom, eat their suppers and went to bed very quietly.
1 The shell of the Paua, Haliotis sp.
2 Probably the ‘small cove’ called Whareongaonga.
3 This was a good guess, though somewhat modified by Banks later when he comes to talk of a ‘king’; and ‘tribal areas’ would be a phrase more familiar to the New Zealander than the word ‘principalities’.
4 MS probabley; S P probability.
In sailing along shore we could clearly see several spots of land cultivated, some fresh turnd up and laying in furrows like ploughd land, others with plants growing upon them some younger and some older; we also saw in two places high rails upon the Ridges of hills, but could only guess that they belong to some superstition as they were in lines not inclosing any thing.1 Before noon another Canoe appeard carrying 4 people; she came within about ¼ of a mile of us and there (I beleive) performd several ceremonies, the man in the bow of her sometimes seeming to ask and offer peace, at others seeming to threaten with a weapon he held in his hand, sometimes dancing sometimes singing. Tupia talkd much to him but could not persuade him to come to the ship. About this time very distant land was seen to the Southward forming a very large bay.2
1 If this observation was correct, probably in each case what was seen was the stockading of a disused pa.
3 See entry for the following day.
4 This broken ground was called the Shambles. Curiously enough Cook gives the name neither in his journal nor on his charts, but it is attested by both Molyneux and Pickersgill, and was used on the second voyage and thereafter. No doubt the Shambles off the English Bill of Portland was in mind.
5 should seize omitted in the MS and supplied from P, where the words have been inserted in a blank left for the purpose by the copyist. S should take added interlinearly.
About half an hour after this we hawld in with the land again and two more canoes came off, one armd the other a small fishing boat with only 4 men in her; they came tolerably near and answerd all the questions Tupia askd them very civily; we could not persuade them to come on board but they came near enough to receive several presents which we hove over board to them, with these they seem'd very much pleasd and went away. At night the ship came to an anchor; many fires were kept up on shore possibly to shew us that our freinds there were too much upon their guard to be surprizd.
13. Brisk breeze of wind: 9 Canoes came after the ship this morn, whether with war or peace we cannot tell for we soon left them behind. We found that the land within Teahoura1 or Portland Isle makes another Island or peninsula, both sides of this the natives have calld Teracaco2 so that is in all likelyhood the name of it. Before noon we were almost surrounded with land; that nearest us made in green hills without the white Clifts which we have generaly seen, the appearance more fertil tho we can not distinguish any cultivation as we did yesterday; on the tops of the hills were several palings like those seen yesterday. Towards evening stood in for a place that had the appearance of an opening which provd no harbour so stood off again with a pleasant breeze. A very large canoe soon put off carrying 18 or 20 men armd who tho they could not get within a mile of us shouted and threatned most prodigiously; after this the white cliffs and more barren land began again to appear. At night pleasant light breeze, stood along shore.
1 Te Houra.
2 Terakako. It was what is now called the Mahia peninsula.
3 It was probably the Kaimanawa and Ruahine ranges that were thus seen.
4 Banks seems here to be reporting the appearance of some part of the district afterwards called the Heretaunga plains, which were very swampy. The ‘flaggs’ were possibly the long rushes called Toetoe (Arundo conspicua) with their yellow feathery heads. The trees seem to have been Kahikatea or White Pine (Podocarpus dacrydioides), which grow well in swampy country; possibly they were the trees known to old Hawke's Bay settlers as the White Pine Bush, the last remains of which were still visible at Mangateretere in the early years of this century. The Kahikatea grows as high as 80 feet.
Before noon we plainly saw that there was a small river ashore1 but no signs of shelter near it. About this time 6 more armd canoes came off from the land, they got together about ½ a mile from the ship and threatned most furiously with their lances paddles &c. After they had done this for some time they came nearer and Tupia talkd with them from the stern; they came into better temper and answerd his questions relating to the names of the countreys kings &c. very civily; he desird them to sing and dance and they, did so. He often told them that if they would come to the ship, without their arms we should be freinds with them; at last one boat venturd and soon after 3 or 4 more, they put all their arms into one boat which stayd at a distance while the others came to the ship and receivd presents, after which they went away. One of these men had hanging round his neck a peice of Green stone seemingly semitransparent, some of our people imagind it to be a Jewel, myself thought it no more than the green stone of which most of their tools and ornaments are made.
1 The Wairoa.
1 It was the cloth, not the fish, they were excessively fond of. The Aute or paper mulberry of the warmer islands had been brought to New Zealand by the Maori, but was cultivated only with great difficulty, so that tapa made from it was rare and consequently highly prized.
2 It was a topuni, or dog-skin cloak, a valuable article.
As soon as Tayeto was a little recoverd from his fright he brought a fish in to Tupia and told him that he intended it as an offering to his Eatua or god in gratitude for his escape. Tupia approvd it and orderd him to throw it into the sea which he did.
In the evening pleasant breeze. The land to the southward of Cape Kidnappers made in bare white cliffs barren enough to appearance.
1 This incident was much described by the voyagers, and its memory lasted long in Maori tradition—in which however the number killed varied. See e.g. A. G. Bagnall and G. C. Petersen, William Colenso (Wellington 1948), p. 462.
2 In Grey MS 51 Banks gives the native name for the cape as ‘Mataruwhow’ This however is wrong: Mataruahou was the name of ‘Scinde Island’, the site of the present Napier; the cape was called Matau a Maui, the fish-hook of Maui.
3 This was certainly the Ruahine range.
4 Mr Graham Turbott has suggested (personal communication) that this type of behaviour is not typical of Puffinus assimilis (see 15 February), but that the petrels seen were perhaps the Fluttering Shearwater, Puffinus gavia.
17. Foul wind, ship turning to windward off Hawks bay. A seal was seen floating on the water asleep. At night calm.
18. Fair wind: a whale was seen this morn. In the evening a small boat with 5 people in her came off from Teracaco, the peninsula within Portland Isle; they with much difficulty overtook the ship; 2 of them who seemd to be the cheif people came on board with very little invitation and orderd the other three their servants to stay in the boat. They soon expressd satisfaction at their treatment and came down into the cabbin where they very soon informd us that they would sleep with us and not think of going ashore that night. We remonstrated much against this telling them that tomorrow morn the ship might be at a great distance from where she now was; they were however resolvd and we were obligd to let them sleep in the ship, into which they consented to have their canoe hoisted which was accordingly done. The countenance of one of these men was the most open I have ever seen, I was prejudicd much in their favour and surely such confidence could not be found in the breasts of designing people. They expressd great curiosity and surprize, attending to any thing that was shewn to them and thankfully accepted the presents which were made them but would not eat with us;2 their servants however were not at all scrupulous on that head for they eat most enormously almost every thing they could get.
1 Cook writes (I, p. 179), ‘Seeing no likelyhood of meeting with a harbour and the face of the Country Vissibly altering for the worse I thought that the standing farther to the South would not be attended with any Valuable discovery, but would be loosing of time which might be better employ'd and with a greater probabillity of Success in examining the Coast to the Northward’; which Banks in Grey MS 51 renders, ‘it was resolved to stand back to the Northward where a warmer climate promised more valuable discoveries’. This is somewhat poetic licence.
2 There was evidently an ‘eating tapu’ at work here: the chiefs might have hesitated to eat with Banks and his friends for some reason, but they certainly could not eat with their own slaves, who appear to have been fed at the same time.
3 Banks has not mentioned this cape before in his text; the ship was abreast of it when ‘our 3 guests’ took their departure on the morning of the 12th. It had been so named because of its flat top.
1 In the absence of a specimen or a more precise description it seems impossible to identify this shrimp.
2 The name of this bay is Anaura.
3 Evidently a kakukura, a very distinguished garment, in which the crimson feathers from under the wings of the Kaka parrot, (Nestor meridionalis (Gm.), were woven into the phormium base.
21. This morn at day break the waterers went ashore and soon after Dr Solander and myself; there was a good deal of Surf upon the beach but we landed without much difficulty. The natives sat by our people but did not intermix with them; they traded however for cloth cheifly, giving whatever they had tho they seemd pleasd with observing our people as well as with the gain they got by trading with them. Yet they did not neglect their ordinary occupations: in the morn several boats went out fishing, at dinner time every one went to their respective homes and after a certain time returnd. Such fair appearances made Dr Solander and myself almost trust them. We rangd all about the bay and were well repaid by finding many plants and shooting some most beautifull birds;1 in doing this we visited several houses and saw a little of their customs, for they were not at all shy of shewing us any thing we desird to see, nor did they on our account interrupt their meals the only employment we saw them engagd in.
Their food at this time of the year consisted of Fish with which instead of bread they eat the roots of a kind of Fern Pteris crenulata,2 very like that which grows upon our commons in England. These were a little roasted on the fire and then beat with a stick which took off the bark and dry outside, what remaind had a sweetish clammyness in it not disagreable to the taste; it might be esteemd a tolerable food was it not for the quantity of strings and fibres in it which in quantity 3 or 4 times exceeded the soft part; these were swallowd by some but the greater number of people spit them out for which purpose they had a basket standing under them to receive their chewd morsels, in shape and colour not unlike Chaws of Tobacco.
1 It is curious that amongst the numerous natural history paintings of New Zealand and Australian plants and animals made by Parkinson, and to some extent by Spöring on this voyage, there is only one sketch of a land bird, the Banksian Cockatoo—which was made at Endeavour River. We know from Parkinson's journal, as well as from Banks, that many others were collected and that he noted the colours of the soft parts of some of them, which he would scarcely have done had he not already made the outline drawings according to his usual practice. It would appear that a folio of sketches of birds was mislaid on the voyage, and this is understandable, since his death and that of Spöring took place so close together (in February 1771), and there may easily have been some confusion over their belongings, especially at that time when so many other men on the Endeavour were sick.
2 The common New Zealand bracken fern, Pteridium aquilinum var. esculentum (Forst.) Kuhn.
Tho at this time of the year this most homely fare was their principal diet yet in the proper seasons they certainly have plenty of excellent vegetables, tho we have seen no sign of tame animals among them except doggs, very small and ugly. Their plantations were now hardly finishd but so well was the ground tilld that I have seldom seen even in the gardens of curious1 people land better broke down. In them were planted sweet potatoes, cocos2 and some one of the cucumber kind,3 as we judgd from the seed leaves which just appeard above ground; the first of these were planted in small lulls, some rangd in rows other in quincunx4 all laid by a line most regularly, the Cocos were planted on flat land and not yet appeard above ground, the Cucumbers were set in small hollows or dishes much as we do in England. These plantations were from 1 or 2 to 8 or 10 acres each, in the bay might be 150 or 200 acres in cultivation tho we did not see 100 people in all. Each distinct patch was fencd in generaly with reeds placd close one by another so that scarce a mouse could creep through.
When we went to their houses Men women and children receivd us, no one shewd the least signs of fear. The women were plain and made themselves more so by painting their faces with red ocre and oil which generaly was fresh and wet upon their cheeks and foreheads, easily transferable to the noses of any one who should attempt to kiss them; not that they seemd to have any objection to such familiarities as the noses of several of our people evidently shewd, but they were as great coquetts as any Europeans could be and the young ones as skittish as unbroke fillies. One part of their dress I cannot omit to mention: besides their cloth which was very decently rolld round them each wore round the lower part of her waist a string made of the leaves of a highly per-fumd grass, to this was fastned a small bunch of the leaves of some fragrant plant which servd as the innermost veil of their modesty.5 Tho the men did not so frequently use paint upon their faces yet they often did: one especialy I observd whose whole body and garments were rubbd over with dry Ocre, of this he constantly kept a peice in his hand and generaly rubbd it on some part or other of him.
1 This is eighteenth century usage. Johnson gives as his fifth definition of the word, ‘Difficult to please; solicitous of perfection; not negligent; full of care’; and as his sixth, ‘Exact; nice; subtle’.
3 These must have been Taro; the ‘small hollows or dishes’ which Banks goes on to mention were characteristic of Taro cultivation.
4 S has a note: ‘quincunx: the way of planting to lose the least ground, in the following form’—followed by a diagram.
5 The grass was called Karetu (Hierochloe redolens R. Br.); there were various leaves that might be used. A drying bunch of Karetu smells rather like vanilla.
One peice of cleanliness in these people I cannot omit as I beleive it is almost unexamp[l]ed among Indians. Every house or small knot of 3 or 4 has a regular nescessary house where every one repairs and consequently the neighbourhood is kept clean which was by no means the case at Otahite. They have also a regular dunghil upon which all their offalls of food &c. are heapd up and which probably they use for manure.1
In the evening all the boats being employd in carrying on board water we were likely to be left ashore till after dark; the loss of so much time in sorting and putting in order our specimens was what we did not like so we applied to our freinds the Indians for a passage in one of their Canoes. They readily launchd one for us, but we in number 8 not being usd to so ticklish a convenience overset her in the surf and were very well sousd; 4 then were obligd to remain and Dr Solander, Tupia, Tayeto and myself embarkd again and came without accident to the ship well pleasd with the behaviour of our Indian freinds who would the second time undertake to carry off such Clumsy fellows.
22. The surf being so great on the shore that water was got with great difficulty made the Captn resolve to leave the bay this morn, which he did tho the wind was foul so the whole day was spent in turning to windward.
23. This morn found ourselves gone backwards, Tegadu2 bay which we left yesterday was now to windward of us. Several canoes came alon[g]side and told us that there was a small bay to leward of us where we might anchor in safety and land in the boats without a surf where there was fresh water; we followd their directions and they soon brought us into a bay calld Tolaga3 where at 1 we anchord. Many Canoes came from the shore and all traded for fish, curiosities &c. very honestly. After dinner we went ashore and found as they had told us a small cove where the boat might land without the least surf, and water near it, so the Captn resolvd to wood and water here.4
1 No, they did not.
2 The origin of this name for Anaura has been more than once discussed. J. A. Mackay, Historic Poverty Bay (Gisborne 1949), p. 50, suggests Te ngaru, the heavy breakers of surf encountered there. Parkinson's version Te karu is all too Maori to be more than accidental: it would literally mean ‘the eye’.
3 The correct name was Uawa. ‘Tolaga’ (which has persisted) is perhaps a rendering of tauranga, anchorage (elsewhere found as a place-name); the dubiety about r and l being parallel with that in the Society Islands. Cf. Samoan taulaga.
4 Cook's Cove, a little within the south point of the bay.
In our walks we met with many houses in the vallies that seemd to be quite deserted, the people livd on the ridges of hills in very slight built houses or rather shedds. For what reason they have left the vallies we can only guess, maybe for air, but if so they purchase that convenience at a dear rate as all their fishing tackle and lobster potts of which they have many must be brought up with no small labour.
We saw also as extrordinary natural curiosity. In pursuing a valley bounded on each side by steep hills we on a sudden saw a most noble arch or Cavern through the face of a rock leading directly to the sea, so that through it we had not only a view of the bay and hills on the other side but an opportunity of imagining a ship or any other grand object opposite to it. It was certainly the most magnificent surprize I have ever met with, so much is pure nature superior to art in these cases: I have seen such places made by art where from an appearance totaly inland you was led through an arch 6 feet wide and 7 high to a prospect of the sea, but here was an arch 25 yards in lengh, 9 in breadth and at least 15 in hight.1 In the evening we returnd to the watering place in order to go on board with our treasure of plants, birds &c. but were prevented by an old man who detaind us some time in shewing the excercise of this countrey, arms, lance and patopato as they are calld. The lance is made of hard wood from 10 to 14 feet long very sharp at the ends,2 the patopatoo is made of stone or bone about a foot long shapd . A stick was given him for an enemy, to this he advancd with most furious aspect brandishing his lance which he held with vast firmness; after some time he ran at the stick and supposing it a man run through the body he immediately fell upon the upper end of it, laying on most unmercifull blows with his patopatoo any one of which would probably have split most sculls; from hence I should be led to conclude that they give no quarter.
1 The enthusiasm raised by this archway (which still exists) provides an interesting annotation on the eighteenth century taste for romantic prospects; no doubt certain connoisseurs would have made some reference to the Gothick, but Banks was architecturally uneducated. It is illustrated both in Hawkesworth and in Parkinson. See II, Pl. 1.
2 This is a rather puzzling weapon: the koikoi, or spear pointed at both ends, was normally six to eight feet long, but the old man may have had an exceptionally long specimen.
25. Went ashore this morn and renewd our searches for plants &c. with great success. In the mean time Tupia who staid with the waterers had much conversation with one of their preists; they seemd to agree very well in their notions of religion only Tupia was much more learned than the other and all his discourse was heard with much attention. He askd them in the course of his conversation with them many questions, among the rest whether or no they realy eat men which he was very loth to beleive; they answerd in the affirmative saying that they eat the bodys only of those of their enemies who were killd in war.
26. All this day it raind without intermission so hard that notwisthstanding our wishing neither Dr Solander or myself could go ashore. In the course of the day very few canoes came on board and not more than 8 or 10 Indians came down to the waterers.
27. Several Canoes came on board at day break and traded as usual. Dr Solander went with the Captn to examine the bottom of the bay, myself went ashore at the watering place to collect Plants. He saw many people who behavd very civily to the boats crew shewing them every thing they wanted to See; among other nicknacks he bought of a boys top shap'd like what boys play with in England which they made signs was to be whippd in the same manner;1 he found also several new plants. Myself found some plants and went to the top of the hill above the watering place to see a fence of poles which we had Observd from the ship: it was on a hill almost inaccessible by wood and steepness, we however climbd it and found several deserted houses near the rails which only consisted of Poles of 14 or 16 feet high set in two rows, each pole 10 feet from the next; the 2 rows were about 6 feet distant joind on the topps by a few sticks laid across sloping like the roof of a house; this rail work with a ditch which was paralel to it went about 100 yards down the hill in a kind of curve, but for what purpose it had been intended I could not at all guess. The people of the watering place at our desire sung their war song in which both men and women joind, they distorted their faces most hideously roling their eyes and putting out their tongues but kept very good time often heaving most loud and deep sighs.
1 Best has an illustration of these potaka or tops, The Maori, II, p. 124.
2 In Grey MS 51 Tuboulai; S Tubolui; P Tubolai. This is a word Maori scholars find it hard to account for. The only known name is Pourewa.
While Mr Sporing was drawing on the Island he saw a most strange bird fly over his head; he describd it about as large as a kite and brown like one, his tail however was of so enormous a [length]1 that he at first took it for a flock of small birds flying after him. He who is a grave thinking man and is not at all given to telling wonderfull stories says he judg'd it to be at least yards in lengh.2
29. Our water having been compleat the day before yesterday and nothing done yesterday but getting on board a small quantity of wood and a large supply of excellent Celary,3 with which this countrey abounds, we this morn saild tho the wind was foul. We turnd to windward all day and at night according to custom found ourselves to leward of the place we had left in the morning.
30. Fine breeze: some canoes followd the ship in the morn but could not come up with her. Before noon we passd by a Cape which the Captn judgd to be the eastermost point of the countrey and therefore calld it East Cape, at least till another is found which better deserves that name.
1 Word omitted both in MS and P. S length, added interlinearly.
2 The New Zealand naturalist can cast no light on this bird, and Mr Spöring's vision must somehow have deceived him. We should at least have liked to know how many yards long the tail was. Cook named the island on his chart Sporing's Island, no doubt to celebrate the event.
3 Wild Celery, Apium prostratum and A. filifolium.