The Endeavour Journal of Joseph Banks 1768–1771 [Volume One]
1. The boat could not be got ready till after dinner when we set out; we rowd most of the night and came to a grapling just under the land of Imáo.
2. Soon after day break we saw an Indian canoe and upon hailing her she shewed us an inlet through the reef, into [which] we pulld and soon fixd upon a Coral rock about 150 yards from the shore as a very proper situation for our Observatory;1 it was about 80 yards long and 60 broad and had in the middle of it a bed of white sand large enough for our tents to stand upon. The 2nd Lieutent and people therefore immediately set about it while I went upon the main Island to trade with the inhabitants for provisions, of which I soon bought a sufficient supply. Before night our observatory was in order, telescopes all set up and tried &c. and we went to rest anxious for the events of tomorrow; the evening having been very fine gave us however great hopes of success.
1 This was the islet of Irioa, just inside the reef beyond the Taotoi pass, almost at the north-west point of Moorea.
3 This may be the correct form of the name.
At sunset I came off having purchasd another hog from the King. Soon after my arrival at the tent 3 hansome girls came off in a canoe to see us, they had been at the tent in the morning with Tarroa, they chatted with us very freely and with very little perswasion agreed to send away their carriage and sleep in [the] tent, a proof of confidence which I have not before met with upon so short an acquaintance.
1 There are many varieties of Fara or pandanus, growing both on high and on low ground; Banks is probably referring to the common Fara-iri, much used in the islands for mats.
2 Lepidium bidentatum Montin (L. piscidium Forst. <JDH>). Parkinson's drawing is labelled ‘Ulhietea [i.e. Raiatea] 1769’. Thellung refers this sp. to L. hyssopifolium.
5. During our absence at Imao an old woman of some consequence, a relation of Tamio, was dead and was plac'd not far from the fort to rot above ground as is the custom of the Island. I went this morn to see her. A small square was neatly raild in with Bamboe and in the midst of it a Canoe awning set up upon two posts, in this the body was laid coverd with fine cloth. Near this was laid fish &c. meat for the gods not for the deceasd, but to satisfie the hunger of the deitys least they shoud eat the body, which Tubourai told us they would certainly do if this ceremony was neglected. In the front of the square was a kind of stile or place lower than the rest, where the relations of the deceasd stood when they cry'd or bled themselves, and under the awning were numberless rags containing the blood and tears they had shed. Within a few yards were two occasional houses; in one of them some of the relations constantly remaind generaly a good many; in the other the cheif male mourner resided and kept a very remarkable Dress in which he performd a ceremony, both which I shall describe when. I have an opportunity of seeing it in perfection which Tubourai promises me I shall soon have.
This day we kept the Kings birthday which had been delayd on account of the absence of the two observing parties; several of the Indians dind with us and drank his majesties health by the name of Kihiargo, for we could not teach them to pronounce a word more like King George. Tupia however to shew his Loyalty got most enormously drunk.
6. In walking into the woods yesterday I saw in the hands of an Indian an Iron tool made in the shape of the Indian adzes, very different I was sure from any thing that had been carried out or made either by the Dolphin or this ship. This excited my curiosity, much the more so when I was told that it did not come out of either of those ships but from two others which came here together. This was a discovery not to be neglected. With much dificulty and labour page 287 I at last got the following account of them, viz. that in their month of Pėpėrė which answers to our January 17681 2 Spanish ships came here commanded by a man whoom they calld To Otterah;2 that they lay 8 days in a bay calld Hidea,3 some leagues to the eastward of Matavie where the ship now lies; that during their stay they sent tents ashore and some slept in them; that they were cheifly connected with a cheif whose name was Orėttė,4 whose younger brother5 they carried away with them promising to return in nine months; that they had on board their ships a woman;6 and that on their departure they stood to the westward as long as they were seen from the Island. I was very particular in these inquiries as the Knowledge got by them may be of some consequence. The methods I took to gain this account would be much too tedious to mention: one of my greatest dificulties was to determine of what nation they were which was done thus, I pointed to our colours and ask'd whether the ships had such or not. No, was the answer when the question was thouroughly understood. I opend a large sheet of Flaggs and askd which of them they had: Tubourai lookd stedfastly over them and at last pitchd upon the Spanish7 ensign and to that he adhered tho we tryd him over and over.
1 The lunar month Pipiri, generally taken to include parts of February and March. The MS is amended; Banks first had February 1767, then changed the year to 1768 and the month (apparently) to May, and finally deletes all this for January 1768. But it was in the first half of April 1768 that Bougainville paid his visit.
2 This name is generally given as Toottera, as in Cook. It may be a rendering of Duclos, Bougainville's second in command; he himself was known as Putaveri.
3 Hitiaa was the district, but Haitaa is in the immediate vicinity of Bougainville's anchorage, and Hidea may signify this latter name.
4 Reti, Ereti, Oreti—there is some slight doubt about the chief's name.
5 The name Outorrou is given marginally: Ahutoru.
6 This was true—and a fact which astonished the French themselves. It was Jeanne Bare or Baret, whom, dressed as a man, the naturalist Philibert Commerson said he engaged in good faith as his valet on the quay-side at Brest. Her deceit was suspected, but not admitted, until the arrival in Tahiti, when a glance from the natives served to dispel it. Unfortunately for Commerson, he was a man of the most elevated and tedious sentiments on the subject of morality and refinement of taste, at the expense of his shipmates. The ribald laughter in which these shipmates then indulged may well have seemed to poor Commerson one of the corruptions of civilization with which he compared the primitive virtues of the Isle of Cythera, in his famous letter published in the Mercure de France, November 1769.
7 Bougainville disclaimed ever having flown the Spanish ensign.
8 matau, to fear; to frighten would be faa-matau. There is a note here in S: ‘Mattow in their Language signifies to frighten, or affront. Indeed the general consequence of frightening them, was their being affronted’.
8. Fresh proofs of the Spanish ships every day in thing[s] of theirs which have been left here, among the rest a course shirt and a woolen jacket both of manufacture different from any English.
9. Yesterday and today the Heiva no Meduah1 or funeral ceremony walkd. My curiosity was raisd by his most singular dress. I was desirous of knowing what he did during his walk; I askd Tubourai, at the same time desird leave to atend him tomorrow which upon my consenting to perform a character was readily granted. Tomorrow therefore I am to be smutted from head to foot and to do whatever they desire me to do. Bread fruit has for some time been scarce with us; about 10 days ago the trees were thinnd all at once from their being a great shew of fruit; every one was employd in making Mahie2 for about a week. Where the breadfruit we now have comes from we cannot tell, but we have more than the woods in our neighbourhood can supply us with. Probably our consumption has thinnd the trees in this neighbourhood, as the Dolphins who came here about this time saw great plenty all the time they stayd; if this is the case what we now get may be brought from some neig[h]bouring place where the trees are not yet exhausted.
1 Heiva no metua; metua, a parent, of either sex. As we see from the next entry and that for 26 June below, it was a ceremony of mourning for the mother of a young woman called Hoona or Huna.
2 mahi, the ‘sour-paste’ made from breadfruit. See pp. 344–5 below.
3 Huna ?
4 neneva means fool or foolish, giddy; and nevaneva, mad, distracted (Davies, 1851). Some confusion of words is not unlikely. Cf. Journal of James Morrison, p. 233: ‘This Ceremony is also Calld Tyehaa [taihaa; tai, to weep or grieve] or Mourning, the Performers are Called Naynevva, Madmen Hevva tyehaa—Mourning Spirits, Gosts, or Spectres’. It is clear from Banks's description, the earliest we have, as well as from later ones, that the near-naked assistants were to act in as thoroughly terrifying a manner as possible, as if they were violently out of their minds with grief. There is no figure annexed in the MS to explain the dress of the Heiva (which was properly the ceremony itself, not the principal figure in it); but there is a drawing in B.M. Add. MS 15508, f. 9, entitled ‘Chief Mourner’, on which is founded the presentment in Plate V in Hawkesworth, II. There is also a pencil drawing by Spöring, entitled ‘Dress of the Chief Mourner’, B.M. Add. MS 23921.32. Henry (Ancient Tahiti, p. 293) says the ceremony was called hevatupapau, mourning for the corpse; the principal, a priest, seems to have represented the ghost of the deceased. See pl. 15.
1 S footnotes this as follows: ‘Alluding to a drawing of the Heiva note tatta Matte Dress [‘tatta Matte’ is presumably taata mate, dead man]. Besides the Nineveh going before, by way of giving notice of the approach of the Heiva; he (the Heiva) carries in one hand Shells of Mother of Pearl; which by his knoucking together, gives farther notice of his approach: and, should any Indian not get out of his way, he would beat him unmercifully with a Staff he carries: the top of which has many small, jagged points’. The British Museum has in its ethnological collection a specimen of the ‘Heiva's’ dress, together with the shell ‘clackers’ and a very dangerous-looking staff.
2 aima taata.
3 Archery was an aristocratic sport in Tahiti, confined to the arii and generally held with great ceremony from sacred platforms; shooting was always for distance. The best description is in Ellis, Polynesian Researches, I, pp. 217–19.
12. In my mornings walk today I met a company of traveling musicians;1, they told me where they should be at night so after supper we all repaird to the place. There was a large concourse of people round this band, which consisted of 2 flutes and three drums, the drummers acompanying their musick with their voices; they sung many songs generaly in praise of us, for these gentlemen like Homer of old must be poets as well as musicians. The Indians seeing us entertaind with their musick, askd us to sing them an English song, which we most readily agreed to and receivd much applause, so much so that one of the musicians became desirous of going to England to learn to sing. These people by what we can learn go about from house to house, the master of the house and the audience paying them for their musick in cloth, meat, beads or any thing else which the one wants and the other can spare.
13. Mr Monkhouse our surgeon met to day with an insult from an Indian, the first that has been met with by any of us. He was pulling a flower from a tree which grew on a burying ground and consequently was I suppose sacred,2 when an Indian came behind him and struck him; he seiz'd hold of him and attempted to beat him, but was prevented by two more who coming up seizd hold of his hair and rescued their companion after which they all ran away.
1 A company of arioi
2 By ‘burying-ground’ Banks means a marae, which would certainly be tapu.
3 The atoll Tetiaroa, a group of five small islets within one reef, about 26 miles northwest of Moorca; it belonged to the arii of Pare, to whom it served as a sort of countryseat. Teturoa was an older name.
15. Some few presents today but no trade at all. We found ourselves today involvd in an unexpected dificulty with regard to the boats: they were loaded with provisions which their owners must live upon or starve, in consequence of which they ask leave to go and take them out and are allowd to do so as much as they can eat. We are not able however to distinguish the true owners, so many avail themselves of this indulgence by stealing their neighbours which we cannot prevent, indeed in a few days more the whole consisting cheifly of fish (curd to keep about that time) will be spoild.
16. Some presents today but no trade. Several petitions for canoes backd by our principal freinds but none complied with. In the afternoon the body of the old woman which lay near us was removd, but to what place or on what account we could not learn.
17. This morn Mr Gore and myself went to Oparre1 to shoot Ducks,2 little thinking what the consequence of our expedition would be; for before we had half filld our baggs we had frigh[t]ned away Dootahah and all his household and furniture, a matter of no small diversion to us to find his majesty so much more fearfull than his ducks.
1 Pare; Banks has merely prefixed O instead of his earlier E, perhaps showing his increasing acquaintance with the language.
2 It seems probable that these were the common duck of the South Sea islands, the Australian Gray Duck, Anas superciliosa Gm.
18. This morn the boat was sent to get Ballast for the ship; the officer sent in her not finding stones convenient began to pull down a burying ground.1 To this the Indians objected much and [a] messenger came to the tents saying that they would not suffer it. I went with the 2nd Lieutenant to the place. They had desird them to desist from destroying the burying ground they had began upon, but shewd them another. The officer however though[t] it best not to molest any thing of the kind and sent the people to the river where they gatherd stones very Easily without a possibility of offending anybody.
19. The fish in the Canoes stink most immoderately so as in some winds to render our situation in the tents rather disagreable. This evening Oborea, Otheothea and Tuarua2 came to visit us for the first time since the affair of the Jacket; they were very desirous of sleeping in the fort but my Marque[e] was full of Indians and no one else chose to entertain them, so they were obligd to repair to their Canoes to sleep there rather out of humour.3
1 A ‘burying ground’ undoubtedly here means a marae. If men serving under Cook could be so almost criminally thoughtless, one can hardly be surprised that the history of race-contacts in the Pacific includes more than one incident of bloodshed.
2 ‘Tuarua’ has not previously come into the journal; the name as it stands may be correct.
3 There seems to have been more behind this brief account than meets the eye. Cook is also brief, expressing surprise that Purea should appear without restoring stolen property, and noting her excuse that ‘her gallant’ was responsible and that ‘she had beat him and turn'd him away’; but Parkinson (p. 32) tells a story which is inherently far from improbable. According to him, two of the girls ‘were very assiduous in getting themselves husbands’; Monkhouse the surgeon took one, and one of the lieutenants the other; all went well ‘till bed-time, and then they determined to lie in Mr. Banks's tent, which they did accordingly; but one of the engaged coming out, the surgeon insisted that she should not sleep there, and thrust her out, and the rest followed her, except Otea Tea, who whined and cried for a considerable time, till Mr. Banks led her out also. Mr. Monkhouse and Mr. Banks came to an eclaircissement some time after; had very high words, and I expected they would have decided it by a duel, which, however, they prudently avoided’.—Clearly Mr Banks experienced the penalties as well as the delights of popularity. It was very agreeable to have the charming Tiatia in his tent—‘my flame’—when she did not whine and cry; but it was difficult when everybody wanted to sleep there.
21. This Morning came Oámo,1 a cheif we had not before seen; with him came a boy and a young woman to whoom all the people present shewd a most uncommon respect, every one taking their garments from their shoulders and wrapping them round their breasts. We were upon this very desirous of shewing them all the respect we could as well as learning who they were: we could not however prevail upon the woman to come into the tents tho she seemd very desirous of it, the people all joind in preventing her by their advice at some times almost using force; the boy was in the same manner kept without. Dr Solander met him by accident close by the gate and laying hold of his hand he followd him in before the people were aware; those in the tents however very soon sent him out again. Upon inquiry we find that this boy is son to Oamo and Oborea who are husband and wife, but have long ago been parted by a mutual consent which gives both leave to enjoy the pleasures of this life without controul from their former engagements. The girl about 16 is intended for his wife but he being not more than 8 years old they have not yet cohabited together.2
2 This was the famous appearance of Temarii or Teriirere, the arii rahi or arii nui of Teva-i-uta, who had his great marae in the Papara district. His person was sacred, hence the removal of the upper garments. The young woman was Te arii na vaho roa, the sister of Tu of Pare. Both being of such exalted rank, their presence in the tents would under Tahitian custom have made them tapu, and hence unusable by commoners. Cook notes that Teriirere was carried on a man's back—which was again due to his sacredness, lest his feet should render the ground he trod on tapu. Cook thought the boy was about 7 and the young woman 18 or 20 and that she was his sister, but this last assumption was a natural consequence of the Tahitian language. She was duly married to Teriirere, but died childless.
23. Our Freinds with us as usual. One of our seamen a Portugese1 was last night missing; as there was no news of him this Morning we concluded that he was run away and meant to stay among the Indians. Captn Cooke therefore offerd a hatchet to any man who would bring him back, one soon offerd and returnd with him at night. He said that two Indians seizd him and stopping his mouth forcd him away, but as he was out of the fort after a woman this account apeard improbable, the man was however not punishd.
24. Our freinds all went to the westward last night; nothing material happend during our solitude. The market has been totaly stoppd ever since the boats were seizd, nothing being offerd to sale but a few apples; our freinds however are liberal in presents so that we make a shift to live without expending our bread, which and spirits are the most valuable articles to us. Late in the evening Tubourai and Tamio returnd from Eparre bringing with them several presents, among the rest a large peice of thick cloth2 which they desird that I would carry home to my Sister Opia,3 and for which they would take no kind of return. They are often very inquisitive about our families and remember any thing that is told them very well.
25. Prayers today it being sunday, soon after Potattow and Polotheara4 came to see us.
2 This was evidently tapa of the very best quality, such as was appropriated to chiefly wear.
4 Potatau, an Atehuru arii, and Poro-tahiara. Corney, III, p. 266 gives her name as Purutifara. They have not been previously mentioned, though they appear to have been prominent people, who made their presence felt both at this time and later. George Forster, on Cook's second voyage, picked up a curious story which does not appear elsewhere: ‘Polatchera, his [Potatow's] former wife, was so like him in stature and bulk, that we unanimously looked upon her as the most extraordinary woman we had ever seen. Her appearance and her conduct were masculine in the highest degree, and strongly conveyed the idea of superiority and command. When the Endeavour bark lay here, she had distinguished herself by the name of captain Cook's sister, (tuaheine no Toote;) and one day, being denied admittance into the fort on Point Venus, had knocked down the sentry who opposed her, and complained to her adopted brother of the indignity which had been offered to her’.—Voyage round the World (1777), I, p. 361. It is odd that the story is not otherwise known, but it is not impossibly true.
1 Haapaianoo, which Banks had before reached on his walk with Solander on 24 April.
3 ?Te aitu-poaro.
4 This, it will be remembered, was the young woman who was Banks's fellow ‘nineveh’ on 10 June.
5 Haitaa, or Hitiaa. One is not always finally certain what sounds Banks's vowels are intended to carry. Cf. p. 274, n. 2 above.
6 Puaru or Puuru.
8 Turi is the word for knee. Turu or turuturu means side-posts of a house, and the late Mr J. Frank Stimson suggested that the word may have once by metaphor signified the two knees as well; or the shape of the cross may simply have reminded the Tahitians of side-posts. Or if turi was the word they used, possibly they simply meant that the ‘Spaniards’ had fallen on their knees before a cross similar to the one Banks made.
9 It is difficult to know what is meant by this. The other side of the bay was the northern coast of Taiarapu, and its people were certainly not subject to Tuteha (nor were the people of Hitiaa); but we have no record of enmity at this time. Indeed Tuteha and the high chief of Taiarapu had recently been allies against Purea and Amo. Certainly a few years later, 1772–3, Tuteha attacked Taiarapu, with disaster to himself.
1 This was the isthmus of Taravao, about 1½ miles across.
2 Taiarapu or Tahiti-iti (Little Tahiti), as a political division called Teva-i-tai or Seaward Teva; its high chief bore the traditional title of Vehiatua.
3 Oboreonoo=Porionuu or Te Porionuu; Cook and Banks, having picked up the name in the country close to Matavai Bay, gave it a far wider significance than it really had, applying it to the whole of Tahiti-nui, or Great Tahiti. But it included only the two small districts of Pare and Arue, and did not even extend to Matavai Bay. Nor was it all governed by Tuteha, whose importance came from his personality and not his rank, nor by any other one man.
4 Anuhi, the name then used for the present Pueu.
5 Maraetaata; burial place was not necessarily the main significance of marae here.
6 ?Pahi-riro; pahi, a canoe, riro, lost or missing
1 This is the peninsula of Tautira (then called Fatutira) where Vehiatua had his residence; ‘westernmost’ is an obvious slip for ‘easternmost’.
2 The Vaitepiha river.
3 Tautiti. Cf. Corney, Quest and Occupation of Tahiti, II, pp. xxiv-xxv.
4 i.e. Te arii, the chief; Banks spells the name Tearee below, which looks like Terii, short for Te arii (cf. Teriirere, the son of Purea and Amo). His more personal name was Taata-uraura.
5 In this description of the marae Banks describes a part as the whole. It was the ahu, the principal feature of the marae, a stone platform at the end of the marae court, that was ‘raisd into the form of the roof of a house’. The ‘carvd boards set upright’ were called unu; they were erected in honour of departed chiefs whose bones were deposited at the marae. The figures of men, carved in flat relief, were called tii; they were symbolical and not representational, and in no sense ‘idols’. Birds were believed to be ‘shadows’, or symbols, or temporary dwelling-places, of the gods. What Banks took to be a cock was perhaps the manu ura or sacred bird; red and yellow were sacred colours (cf. the maro-ura and maro-tea, the sacred red and yellow feather girdles with which arii rahi were invested); but it may also possibly have been a cock, sacred to Ruaifaatoa, a god of warriors and strength whose diversion was cock-fighting.
After tiring ourselves with walking we calld up the boat but both our Indians were missing, they had it seems staid behind at Waheatuas, depending upon a promise we had made to the old man of returning and sleeping with him (a promise we were often forcd to make without any intention of performing it). Tearee and another went with us. We rowd till we came abreast a small Island calld Tuarrite2 when it became dark and our Indians piloted us ashore to a place where they said that we might sleep; it was a deserted house and near it was a very snug cove for the boat to lay, so we wanted nothing but Victuals of which article we had met with very little since morning. I went into the woods, it was quite dark so that neither people nor victuals could I find except one house where I was furnishd with fire, a breadfruit and a half and a few ahees, with which and a duck3 or 2 and a few curlews4 we were forcd to go to sleep, which I did in the awning of a Canoe that followd us belonging to Tearee.
1 ihi, the fruit of the mape or Tahitian chestnut (Inocarpus edulis). ‘Fagifera’ is added in pencil in a blank left for the purpose.
2 Cook spells this name on his chart Otooareite. It is probably the islet now called Tiere, one of a cluster of three; its former name was Tiare-iti, and from the spellings given perhaps also Tuarae-iti.
3 Probably Anas superciliosa Gm., the Australian Gray Duck.
4 Probably the Bristle-thighed Curlew, Numenius tahitiensis (Gm.). Non-breeding birds of this species sometimes winter in Polynesia.
2 Roudero sic.
3 Tuahou or Tuahau.
4 A nautical term for a brief spell or interval.
5 This was Pari (pari=the cliffs).
6 Fei, mountain plantains.
8 Ahui, the old name for a sub-district called Vai-ao-tea, now included in the district of Teahupoo. It is not to be confused with another sub-district of the same name on the northern coast of Tahiti-iti.
9 Matahiapo—i.e. the ‘first-born’ of a great arii family.
1 These were trophies of war; they had come from Matavai Bay to Papara, and been snatched away with other trophies when Amo and Purea were defeated.
2 These were also trophies of war; they were the jawbones of the Papara men.
3 Corney, Discovery of Tahiti, III, Descriptive Index, gives his name as Tuivirau or Tuivivirau—which last he says is incorrect; but it tallies better with the name picked up by Banks and Cook.
4 Vaiuru, the old name for the district of Vairaao.
29. About 5 O'Clock our sentry awakd us with the alarming intelligence of the boat being missing, he had he said seen her about £½ an hour before at her grapling which was about 50 yards from the shore, but that on hearing the noise of Oars he lookd out again and could see nothing of her. We started up and made all possible haste to the waterside, the morn was fine and starlight but no boat in sight. Our situation was now sufficiently disagreable: the Indians had probably attackd her first and finding the people asleep easily carried her, in which case they would not fail to attack page 302 us very soon, who were 4 in number armd with one musquet and cartouch box and two pocket pistols without a spare ball or charge of powder for theem. In about a quarter of an hour however we had the satisfaction to see the boat return, which had drove from her grapling by some effect of the tide probably as it was perfectly calm.
As soon as the boat returnd we got our breakfast and set out. The first district on which we landed was the last in Tiarreboo, it was governd by Omóė.1 He was employd in building a house for which purpose he wanted a hatchet very much and was inclind to offer any price for it but our stock was quite spent; after some conversation we found that he would not deal for nails and put off the boat. He and his wife Whannoouda2 followd in a canoe; we took them into the boat and after rowing about a league they desird we would put ashore, which we did and found his people who had brought a very large hog. We had much chafering about the price of it, it was worth any ax we had in the ship but we had no ax at all in the boat. We therefore told Omoe that if he would come to Matavie with his hog he should have a large ax and a nail into the bargain for his trouble; which he after having consulted his wife readily agreed to, and gave us a large peice of cloth as a pledge of his intention to perform this agreement.
1 Moe. Cook writes Omae.
2 ?Fanau-tua (cf. p. 328, n. 2 below).
3 tatau, the tattooing of the skin.
4 taata iti.
5 This is rather mysterious. The image apparently represented the great Polynesian culture-hero Maui; but I do not know of any other reference to it, besides that in Cook on this same occasion, nor what the three taata iti—‘little men’—were. Cook writes (pp. 111–12) that it was ‘said by the Natives to be used in their Heiva's or publick entertainments, probably as punch is in a Puppet Show’; he says there were ‘four nobs resembling stumps of horns’, three in front and one behind. This was at what Cook calls ‘the first Whennua in Opooreonoo’—Vaiari, now Papeari
1 The two names in square brackets have been added in pencil, to supply blanks in the text, apparently in the hand of Robert Brown, the eminent botanist and Banks's later librarian. Hooker altered the former to Pandanus odorus, without indicating in any way what he had done. This is only one of many instances of ‘mutilation’ perpetrated by Hooker (cf. Warren Dawson, Jour. Soc. Bibliog. Nat. Hist. 2 : 218–22). No Crataeva coll. has been located but Parkinson's coloured drawing of ‘Crataeva frondosa mscr.’ dated 1769 and Solander's usual full description are preserved. Britten identifies this as C. uliginosa L. It is C. religiosa Forst. f. See Pl. 29.
3 Toa or Aito, ironwood, Casuarina equisetifolia. The scientific name has not changed. As Banks had noticed, it was a characteristic tree about marae.
1 Thus Banks describes the great marae called Mahaiatea, built 1766–8, the greatest work of architecture in all the islands, the symbol of Purea's pride and of her pride in her son. Banks's measurements differ in some details from Cook's: Cook over-estimates the size of the enclosure. The squared ‘Rock stones’ of the foundation were volcanic. The remains of the ahu, that great edifice, once about 45 or 50 feet high, can still be seen at Mahaiatea, a melancholy witness to the passage of time and the destructive stupidity of man. The early accounts have been collated, and careful diagrams drawn, by Kenneth P. Emory, in his Stone Remains in the Society Islands (Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 116, Honolulu 1933) pp. 30, 72–4.
2 This was the ancient marae of Tetooarai.
3 e fata, an altar. These are described by Emory, op. cit., p. 15, as ‘small tables (fata ‘ai ‘ai) set up on the court’, for sacrificial offerings of food.
30. After having slept last night without the least interuption we proceeded forwards but during the whole day saw little or nothing worth observation. We bought a little bread fruit which article has been equaly scarce all round the Island, more so even than it is at Matavie. At night we came to Atahourou, the very place at which we were on the 28th of May: here we were among our intimate freinds, who expressd the pleasure they had in entertaining us by giving us a good supper and good beds, in which we slept the better for being sure of reaching Matavie tomorrow night at the farthest. Here we learnd that the bread fruit (a little of which we saw just sprouting upon the trees) would not be fit to use in less than 3 months.
1 Varehu, the lunar month December-January. Banks seems first to have written ‘Owo-’ and altered it to ‘Owi-’.