Earliest New Zealand
Ex “Hocken” Collection, Dunedin.Rev. S. Marsden to Rev. John Butler.
On board H.M.S. “Dromedary,”
Sept. 13th, 1820.
My Dear Sir,
As I am now on the eve of my return to Port Jackson, I avail myself of the present moments to address a few lines to you before my departure, with the sincerest wish to assist you in the great work of the Lord, to which you have been solemnly called and set apart. You will remember at the time I arrived in New Zealand in Feb. last, I found you greatly “discouraged because of the way.” You had experienced six months of severe trial in a new field of action, during which period, I have no doubt, you have suffered more real anxiety and pain of mind than you had ever experienced during as many years at any former period of your life. Your trials were new—your graces were exercised with new temptations, and perhaps, in some instances, you saw yourself in a different light from what you had been wont to do. Your patience was put to the test, and often completely exhausted; you seemed to feel more of that unbelieving despondery spirit that the Ten Rulers of the Children of Israel, who had been appointed by Moses to examine the Land of Canaan, manifested, when they returned and made their report. “We are not able to go up against the people, for they are stronger than we.” When you mentioned to me the state of your own mind and the situation of the settlement, I felt much grieved for the evils that existed; yet, from my long experience of mankind, I was not astonished at them. To despise authority is inherent in human nature. I have often seen this disposition manifest itself, more in missionaries than any other men who have come under my notice. The Scriptures are the best comment upon the conduct of mankind, whether they are religious or irreligious. Wherever God appoints a Moses and places Israelites under his authority, there will always be a Korah or a Dathan or an Abiram to say to him, “You take too much upon you, seeing all the congregation is holy, every one of them; wherefore lift ye up yourselves above the congregation of the Lord?” Even men of sound piety are liable to fall into this sin, and it is a dreadful one for disturbing the church of Christ. Our blessed Lord hath told us that offences will come, but adds Woe to him by whom the offence cometh. Did not Miriam and Aaron (own sister and brother to Moses), and partakers of like precious Faith with him, break out into open sedition against him, and laboured to bring power and authority into contempt before the congregation of Israel? They carried their opposition against Moses so far as to kindle the anger of the Lord against them, and to make them public examples of His high displeasure, as a warning to others, by instantaneously inflicting Miriam with the leprosy, and com- page 92 pelled both Aaron and her, with guilt and shame, to entreat Moses to pray for them, that the divine judgments might be averted from them. Sin is sin; and rebellion, rebellion; whether found among angels or saints, and God will always punish it. If any despise our legal authority, we should not seek to avenge ourselves. “Vengeance is Mine,” saith the Lord, “and I will repay.”
(Several more pages follow in this strain; advice, which Mr. Marsden never himself carried out, being constantly in conflict with legal authority; he was probably “killing time” on the “Dromedary” before it sailed. The advice is good, no doubt; this for example):
If they should provoke your spirit, and cause you to speak unadvisedly with your lips, it will go ill with you for their sakes…. .
You have been accustomed to obey and be obeyed. Perhaps some of your colleagues have neither been accustomed to obey, nor to be obeyed, but they have got these lessons to learn. You are now at the head of the settlement, and have no superior. Tho' it may be the duty of those under you to obey your orders in a certain sense, as readily as the men you had under you in London were wont to do, yet, if you expect this, you expect too much. You might as well expect a man to make a watch because he had seen one.
(The remainder of this letter is missing; probably Mr. Marsden supplied this to the C.M.S., London, whence it came into the possession of Hocken.)
According to Rev. Butler's Diary, he was with Mr. Marsden on Septr. 12th., as vide the following continuation of that portion of the Rev. Butler's Journal, which is in the “Hocken” Collection.
Extract from John Butler's Journal, contained in a letter to Rev. Josiah Pratt.
Now Dec. 1st, 1820.
Rev. and Dear Sir,
The following are a few remarks which I have made since my last:
TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 12th.—Set off with Mr. Marsden for Wangaroa, in order to see him embark on H.M.S. “The Regent,” schooner, for Port Jackson. We arrived at the “Dromedary” at eleven at night. In the morning, the wind blew directly into the harbour, and continued to do so for several days, so that the schooner could not get out. This gave us an opportunity of examining the woods, and seeing the spars which were cut down for the “Dromedary.” Here, I beheld the wreck of the “Boyd,” the sight of which caused me to heave a sigh.
SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 17th.—The morning was fine, but no wind, but Capt. Skinner determined to send away the page 93 schooner, by towing her out of the harbour with boats. Mr. Wm. Hall and myself accompanied Mr. Marsden, until the vessel was a mile without the Heads. We then took our leave of him, and returned unto the “Dromedary,” where we remained until Monday noon, and then returned to Kedee Kedee. The remaining part of the week I have been farming and gardening.
SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 23rd.—Received a note from Mr. Marsden, saying the “Prince Regent,” schooner, had encountered a heavy gale off the Three Kings, at the north point of New Zealand, and returned to the Bay of Islands yesterday. Mr. Marsden was very ill during the storm, and is obliged to remain in New Zealand until the “Dromedary” goes to Port Jackson.
SUNDAY.—Divine Service in Mr. Hall's house, M. & E.
SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 30th.—The first three days of this week, gardening and fencing, the latter three in enlarging the front yard belonging to Mr. Hall and the store. The natives employed in husbandry go on well, and improve very fast. They are very anxious for European garments, and I mean to give them a suit from the slops which I bought, as an encouragement to go on and be diligent.
OCTOBER 1st.—Divine Service, M. & E. Administered the Holy Sacrament in the morning.
OCTOBER 2nd.—Held a committee. In the afternoon, received by Mr. King a letter from the H.C.M.S., bearing date April 5th, 1820. Also an account of the loss of the “Echo,” whaler, Capt. Spence, off the coast of New Zealand; crew saved. Also an account of the death of Mr. Hassell.
TUESDAY, WEDNESDAY.—After timber for the Society's work, with one European and two natives; obtained two fine logs.
FRIDAY.—Went into the bush in search of our herd of cattle; took a native with me to assist in this business. We had the good fortune to find them all, though in several divisions. We collected them into one herd again, and were glad to find them looking remarkably well.
OCTOBER 8th.—Divine Service in Mr. Hall's house, M. & E.page 94
OCTOBER 9th.—Captain Ker, of the ship “Saracen,” visited our settlement, accompanied by Mr. Marsden, and dined with me. Captain Ker expressed great satisfaction on seeing the improvements made in so short a time.
TUESDAY, OCTOBER 10th.—Having understood from Captain Ker, on the preceding day, that he could spare a whale-boat, Mr. F. Hall and myself set off in a canoe to Parroa to purchase it. When we arrived, we found that Mr. Marsden and Capt. Ker were gone to Tippoonah (Te Puna), and as the Captain did not return till evening, we were obliged to remain on board all night.
In the morning, we agreed for a new boat, oars, and sail, for £30, which we paid at the same time; the price we considered very high, but Capt. Ker said he paid £35 for a new whaleboat in Sydney, and therefore could not let us have one for less than £30. Our settlement was in the greatest distress for a boat. We are twelve miles from Tippoonah, and sixteen from Parroa, and no way of getting to either place but by water; so that, whatever occasion might occur, or whatever accident might happen, or whatever might be wanted, we had no conveyance but a canoe, which is exceedingly dangerous for Europeans. I have had several narrow escapes in crossing these large bays in canoes. If we had another boat at Kidee Kidee, it would be very serviceable.
Having finished our business, we returned, and arrived at Gloucester Town at eight o'clock on Wednesday evening.
THURSDAY AND FRIDAY.—Employed in general business.
SATURDAY.—I employed in reading. In the evening, I gave nine natives a suit of clothes each for their good behaviour, and as a stimulus to further exertion. These garments consisted of a striped cotton shirt, blue jacket, and trousers, duck frock, and handkerchief. As soon as I informed them what I was about to do for them, they leaped for joy. I told them that these clothes were to be worn only on Sundays, and that I hoped they would attend church very regularly, and behave well. This they promised to do. Having furnished them with soap, I ordered them to go to the river and wash themselves clean, which was done in a few minutes. As soon as they were dressed, I caused them to stand in a row, and, after a short exhortation, they were permitted to walk in them, as the evening was very fine. They viewed each other with admiration, and it was no less gratifying to us. When shall page 95 their souls be clothed with Christ's righteousness, as well as their bodies with European garments? He that loveth the cause of Christ, let him pray for this wished-for period.
SUNDAY, OCTOBER 15th.—Divine Service in Mr. Hall's house, M. & E. About fourteen natives attended, and behaved exceeding well.
SATURDAY, OCTOBER 21st.—The principal part of this week I have employed in writing, and the natives in falling timber, and fencing, etc. In the evening, we were visited by Mr. Marsden, and Mr. Fairfoul, surgeon of the “Dromedary.” Mr. F. remained with us two days, and was much pleased with the prospect we have of usefulness at Gloucester Town.
OCTOBER 22nd.—Divine Service, M. & E.
OCTOBER 28th.—This week my natives have been employed in fencing, and myself in the general business of the Mission.
SUNDAY, OCTOBER 29th, 1820.—Preached at Ranghee Hoo, and administered the Holy Sacrament. I beg leave to observe that the reason why I have not preached at Ranghee Hoo for some time past, is owing to my not having a conveyance.
OCTOBER 30th.—This morning I set off with Mr. Marsden, Mr. Shepherd, and Mr. Puckey, on a journey to the river Kiperro. We left Ranghee Hoo in my whaleboat, and passed Cape Brett at seven. The first place we touched at was Wangahmoomoo, about twenty miles distant from Ranghee Hoo. Here we bought some fish off the natives, who were very desirous for us to go on shore, and spend a little time with them; but this request we could not consent to, as we were very anxious to proceed. The next place was Wangahdoodoo. The next, Shanah. The next, Mee Mee Wangahootoo, and the next, Wanahnackee, where we slept for the night. All the natives as we passed were equally solicitous for our company.
The shore was very bold, and the hills were covered with lofty timber. After landing, we prepared food for supper, hung our hammocks in a tree, and, after refreshment and prayer, laid ourselves down to rest, having journeyed forty miles. We rose in the morning before daylight, and set out while it was yet dark, and proceeded to Matta Podee to breakfast. This place belongs to Te Morengah, and is well adapted for a missionary settlement. After breakfast, we had some conversation with Te Morengah and his people, and departed.page 96
The next place we arrived at was Too Too Ka Kah. Here is a small harbour sheltered by rock standing in the mouth of it. There is plenty of fine kowrie timber at this place, fit for masts or any other purpose.
The next place was Wangaree. Here we arrived at eight at night. The principal chief, Wyhee Wyhee (Waewae), and his people received us with great joy, and shewed us every mark of attention. After some refreshments and prayer, we enjoyed a friendly conversation with them until a late hour, when we retired to rest, our hammocks being hung in a tree as before. In the morning, we stopped for breakfast, after which we were presented with a large hog for our party. We had intended to leave our boat at this place, and proceed by land to Kiperro, but were informed that the natives of Wyeroa (a river we had to go down), were all fled, on account of Coohee Coohee, a great chief, who was invading their border with a great force. After such information, we found it necessary to go on for the River Thames. We passed Bream Head at three p.m. The wind was blowing strong, and we stood in for the Harbour of Mangheewye, and entered the same between four and five o'clock. It is a bar harbour, and a very dangerous entrance, but there appears to be plenty of water inside. Here we took up our lodging in similar manner to the preceding night. We started in the morning at six o'clock, and passed Point Rodney into the Thames at noon. There was a very strong breeze, and we sailed fifty miles before dinner. Hunger turned us into a small harbour for refreshment; after which we crossed part of the river to an uninhabited island—about twelve miles distant. At this time, the sea was very rough, and we thought it prudent to run into shelter, and remain for the night. Having taken our things out of the boat, we hauled her up above high water mark, then took a walk on the island, and returned to the beach, offered up our evening sacrifice and thanksgiving, and then laid down to rest.
The wind being fair in the morning, we set off for Mogoeah (Mokoia) at daybreak, but there was an amazing heavy sea going, and Mr. Marsden mistook the entrance into Mogoeah Harbour, which nearly proved the most serious consequences. We went to the upper, instead of the lower, side of an island. As we drew near, I went forward to look out, and I observed the land on one side very low, the entrance narrow, and the water discoloured. I said to Mr. Marsden, “Sir, you have mistaken the passage; there appears to be no water.” page 97 He replied, “There is water for the ‘Coromandel.’” At this time, we were going before the wind at the rate of nine knots. As we drew very near, the mistake was clearly seen, but it was too late to go about; we rushed through a tremendous surf, and, through mercy, we had just water enough to carry us into shelter. You may easily imagine our feelings at this moment.
We then went on shore, and the natives of the place hauled our boat over the sandbank into the deep water. On finding ourselves sheltered and secure, we felt exceeding thankful.
We next proceeded on for Mogoeah, and arrived about four in the afternoon. The natives came running to the beach in great numbers. We were saluted by the firing of a musket, and were received with every mark of respect and gratitude. They even ran into the water with eagerness to shake hands with us, so that, for a few minutes, it was impossible to land, for the press.
After every expression of joy on the part of the natives, we landed, and ascended an eminence to the residence of Enackee (Hinaki), one of the chiefs of this large district. As we approached we found him sitting on the ground with his friends, ready to receive us. I would remark that sitting is the usual way of receiving friends in N.Zd. Enackee is a man of mild countenance, and gentlemanly in his manners. After receiving us with every mark of friendship, he shewed us every favour in his power, offering us hogs, potatoes, and a house to sleep in, etc., etc.
We then entered into conversation, and I expressed a desire to go on the top of an adjacent mountain. Enackee accompanied me with all readiness, leaving Mr. Marsden and Puckey with his friends. We passed through a fine tract of land, principally cultivated, and set with potatoes.
When we arrived at the foot of the mountain, and began to ascend the side, I found, on examination, the grass and fern growing upon burnt earth and calcined cinders, which led me to conclude that it had been a volcano.
Reaching the summit, I found a large crater, and proportionately deep, but the eruption must have ceased long since, as the grass grows spontaneously at the bottom of it. The prospect from the summit is grand and nobly pleasing. I observed twenty villages in the valley below, and, with a single glance, beheld the largest portion of cultivated land I had ever page 98 met with in one place in New Zealand. Having taken a general survey, we returned by another path to the Eppah (pah), where we found Mr. Marsden enjoying a friendly chat with the people.
The next thing to be done was to cook for supper, and the natives were very anxious to see this performed. Our utensils consisted of a frying-pan, an iron pot, and tea kettle. On seeing the flour, they were at a loss to know its utility; we fried pancakes, boiled pork, and made tea; and, after supper, we handed the chiefs and their children some pancakes, who appeared very fond of it.
The evening being fine, Mr. Puckey and myself visited several villages, and the natives seemed quite at a loss to know how to express their gratitude in a proper way and manner.
(The Journal of Mr. Butler to the Society is not exactly word for word with that retained by himself; the period from May to November 4th has been lost, but, owing to the foresight of Dr. Hocken, the Journals to the Society were obtained by him, placed in his library in Dunedin, and have been kindly made available in order to complete the narrative. Butler's own original Journal again continues.)
On our return to the Eppah (the pah), we had Divine Service; the natives were very quiet.
FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 4th, 1820.—We rose early and prepared for our journey. This morning, Totohee, a chief, and relation of Enackee, came to me, desiring me to go with him to his paa, about half a mile off. When I arrived, I found his object was to present me with a good mat, for calling one of his children after my name, a fine boy about four years of age. He considered this a great favour, and pressed me to take the mat as a recompense. I took the mat, and in return made him and his family a present of some fish-hooks, after which I took my leave of them, and went down to the boat.
These people are most anxious to have Europeans to live among them. They appear to be kind and affectionate toward each other, and exceedingly well disposed toward the white people, and, so far as my judgment goes, it is by far the best place for a missionary settlement that I have ever seen in New Zealand. The natives are very numerous. Enackee informed me that there were as many as seven thousand men, women and children, but, judging it impossible for him to tell accurately, I put down four thousand, which I think, from observation, is near the mark. We informed them that, by and by, page 99 the missionaries would be sent to them; they seemed impatient to know when, and expressed their doubts in the most feeling manner, saying, “Our eyes, we are afraid, will be all dark before that period arrives, and we shall never see them.” I answered, “You must have patience; England is a long way off.” Great crowds accompanied us to the water side, and gave us a hearty good-bye.
Mogoea is about two hundred miles from Kiddikiddi. The “Coromandel” was lying about forty-five miles off, and, as Mr. Marsden wished to visit her, we bore away with all speed, having Enockea and his son Rupee in the boat.
After we had got without the heads, a very heavy squall came suddenly on, and the wind directly foul, we were obliged to bear away for an island about four miles to leeward. In a few moments there was a great sea up, but thro' mercy we reached the island in safety. Here we remained all day and night, and were glad to embrace the rock for shelter. Here, prayer and praise for the first time were offered to the God of Heaven Whose mercies are everlasting, and Whose truth endureth from generation to generation. The storm abated in the evening, and on Sunday morning, November 5th, at six o'clock, we bore away for the “Coromandel.” We had a fine breeze, and arrived about eight in the evening. We remained on board till Tuesday, November 7th, when we again made sail for Mogoia.
During our short stay, I went on shore among the natives, with Rupee, Enockea's son, who found some of his relations living there. After embracing him in the most affectionate manner, two women sat down opposite each other and cried, or rather howled, for an hour or more, and cut themselves from the wrists upwards to the shoulders, as regular as you would cut the rind off port to roast it. The blood ran off their finger ends profusely, and their faces and breasts were covered with it. I was glad when the ceremony was over, as I did not like to see it. I afterwards asked them why they did thus; they replied, on account of the love they had for the lad. I answered, “We express our sorrow by inward affection, and by weeping.” They replied, “Your love is not so strong as ours; we think little enough to shed our blood to testify the same.”
After we had passed the River Thames and entered the Wye te Matta, a stiff breeze set in against us, and we were obliged to put into a well-sheltered creek and wait for a fair page 100 wind. Here we continued two nights and one day. We hung our hammocks on the branch of a tree, and covered them with the boat's sail; but, as there was much rain falling, and our house not being weather-proof, our lodging became very uncomfortable. During our stay, I went into the woods and shot pigeons for our food—on Butler's Island.
Thursday morning, we made sail for Mogoia, and arrived about noon. Here we had to leave the boat, and, as soon as matters could be arranged and natives procured to carry our necessaries, we departed by land for Manukau, a settlement about nine miles from Mogoia. We arrived about five o'clock p.m., and were, as usual, received with every mark of gratitude and respect. No Europeans had ever been here before, and everyone, young and old, was eager, if possible, to touch the hem of our garments. The natives are numerous, the land good, the timber fine, and the little naked children ran about like rabbits in a warren. This would be a good place for a missionary settlement, but not equal to Mogoia.
We remained in this place one day and two nights, during which time we engaged in a great deal of interesting conversation with the natives.
The River of Manukau runs into the ocean on the west side of New Zealand, and is separated only by a narrow neck of land about half a mile wide, from Mogoia River on the east side, and also from the Wye te Matta on the north-east side, by the same extent of land.
During our stay, we went down to the heads of the harbour of Manukau, but, as the distance is about twenty miles from the town, we had not sufficient time to say much about the entrance. It appears to be a bar harbour; we sounded inside, and found from four to ten fathoms.
The name of the head chief of this place is Kowow. He appears to be a man of a bold disposition, and a good countenance. He furnished us with pork and potatoes, and did everything he could to serve us during our short visit; and offered his services, and as many of his people as we needed to conduct us to the Kipero; this offer we gladly accepted.
We left Manukow on Saturday for Kepero; our party consisted of about twenty persons. As we passed along, we came to a large volcano mountain down which the path led. When we had ascended the summit, we sat down a little while both to rest and take a survey of the country.page 101
On this elevated spot we had the opportunity of observing the entrance of Manukow Harbour to the western, and the River Thames on the eastern side of New Zealand.
In the course of three hours, we arrived at the Wyetematta, where we sat down and breakfasted, up which we had to go twenty miles, and Kowow furnished us with a canoe for this purpose. But, as we met with some little impediment on account of the tide, etc., we only reached half way up the river; we were obliged to go on shore, and remain until morning; however, this gave us an opportunity of killing a pig we had with us, and of washing and cleaning ourselves a little for the Sabbath. On this beach, in the open air, I enjoyed as good a night's rest as ever I had in my life.
SUNDAY, Noon, 12th.—We rose very early, performed Divine Service, and proceeded; we arrived at the head of the river about ten a.m., and after that, walked twenty miles in the course of the day. The land we passed over this day is not very good. A little before the going down of the sun, we reached a small village on the west side, near the sea.
These people had never seen a European, and the younger of both sexes were filled with wonder and astonishment. When I pulled off my hairy cap I travelled in, they shouted aloud; I apprehended they conceived my hat formed part of my head. The old chief made a long speech, and said he dreamed white men were coming to see him, the night before. We spent the evening among them in the usual way, in prayer and praise, and conversation, and were treated in the kindest manner possible. We slept among the trees, and in the morning, after many a hearty good wish for our welfare, we departed. This place is called Moodewye. There is also a fine waterfall, fifty to sixty feet deep. The chief's name is Homihamoo.
The natives accompanied us over the sandhills to the seashore, and then bid us good-bye, and returned. We walked on the sea beach upwards of twenty miles. This was a very fatiguing march on the sands; and also, we suffered a good deal from thirst, as the day was hot and windy, and no water to be had for sixteen miles. The sandhills reach for sixteen miles to this coast, and very much resembles a deep snow in winter. You behold an immense tract of sand, with a stunted shrub here and there growing through it. The wind whirls about the sand like a cloud; and it is almost impossible to stand or face it in a windy day. In passing along, I sat down on a small, sandy eminence to rest a while, being hungry and page 102 thirsty, and no water to be obtained among these barren sands. All our people, except Mr. Shepherd, lagging a long way behind, I was led to contemplate a little while on the 42nd Psalm, and I can truly affirm I never felt the force and excellence of those pious words of the psalmist in such a manner before, “As the heart panteth for the water brooks, so longeth my soul after Thee, O God. My soul is athirst for God, for the living God; when shall I come and appear,” etc., etc. 1 v. and 2 v. I thought our situation was very peculiarly interesting: on the very verge of the world, or at least on the farthest shore that is known, and nearly the Antipodes of England; the tremendous roaring surf, which is seen and heard on this sandy coast many miles; the barren sand hills; the dreary wilderness of New Zealand; surrounded by cannibals; exposed to the heat by day, and the cold dews by night. On reflecting on the dangers we had already passed, and the goodness of the Lord in preserving us amidst innumerable perils, my mind was filled with an awful sense of the majesty of God Who is everywhere present, and fills the universe with His presence. But how comforting to think that he is everywhere present for the comfort and support of His people!
We arrived at the place where we had to turn off inland about four o'clock, and, walking a little way, we halted in a valley between the sand hills, where we found water, and a few heath shrubs with which we made a little shelter for the night. Here we offered up praise and thanksgiving to our adorable Redeemer for all His tender mercies. I rested during the night but very little; I believe through weariness. Mr. Puckey was attacked with rheumatic pains, insomuch that in the morning he was obliged to be carried by natives; however, we had but a short distance to go, say about eight miles, which we accomplished before breakfast.
When we reached Kapooah, a settlement on the banks of the Kepero River, and the residence of the great chief, Teenana, we were received, as at every other place, with every mark of kindness and attention. Here we halted for the day to refresh ourselves, etc. Teenana is an aged man, but of an amazing size, and full of flesh; his head is extraordinarily large, and his beard very thick and long, which gives him a lion-like appearance. Mr. Marsden said he would give twenty guineas for his likeness, if it was possible to obtain it. One would suppose he had sprung from a race of giants. His sons, Paheehorah, Arora, Aronah, Derahranga, and Tyeheest, are all of them very fine large men. We spent the day very com- page 103 fortably, and the old gentleman wished us to sit up all night, that he might have the pleasure of seeing us; of course, this we could not consent to.
On Thursday, November 16th, in the morning, at daylight, they manned a canoe, and proceeded down the river for the heads, but the wind blew strong out, and we were afraid to venture lest we should be blown out to sea; we therefore went on shore at a small village, six miles within the heads. Next morning we started at daylight and sounded the water as we went along, and found from six to fifteen fathoms, but there are three sand shoals lying near the harbour. Our survey, of course, was very superficial; however, from our observations, we were led to believe that there are two, if not three, passages for ships of any burthen. The width between the heads is about five miles, or perhaps a little more.
As the day advanced, the wind began to blow strong out to sea, and we were glad to run into a small bay within the heads, leave our canoe, and return back to the village by land. We remained in this place until Saturday, on account of the weather.
Having now accomplished the objects of our journey, we began to think of home. Mr. Marsden and Mr. Shepherd proposed to return by land to Kidee Kidee, and Mr. Puckey and myself to Mogoia for the boat, and go by sea.
This distance by way of Mogoia, from the village to Kidee Kidee, is three hundred miles, while the way by which Mr. Marsden returned is only one hundred and eighty; this happens on account of the circuitous route of journey.
SATURDAY, noon, 18th.—This morning we rose early, committed each other to the care and protection of our Heavenly Father, and departed; Mr. Puckey and self for Mogoia, Mr. Marsden and Mr. Shepherd for Shukianga, taking with them one of Tenana's sons, and two cookeys to carry their necessaries; and we, on the other hand, had a strong party with us in the canoe.
We arrived at Topooah (Kapua), about noon, and stopped to refresh ourselves, while the tide turned in our favour. Having several hours to spare, we endeavoured to turn them to some account, by conversing with the natives. They were very desirous to know if there was water enough for shipping, and being answered in the affirmative, they were much pleased.page 104
There is plenty of fine timber at Kipperoo, and near the water side. After talking a while about their farms, etc., etc., our conversation turned upon the works of creation; the earth with her productions, the heavens and all the starry host, and and that our God was the Maker of them all. They wished to know if our God was good and kind to us, and sent us plenty of good things. I replied, “He does, and He is a very great God—a very good God, and very kind to all people.” They said, “Perhaps he will not be good to New Zealand men!” I answered, “He is, and always will be very good to you, and hath sent us to tell you how much He loves you.”
Native: “Your God is a long way off in Europe.”
Reply: “Yes, and He is in New Zealand also, and every other place. He made New Zealand men, as well as Europeans; He is the God of black men, as well as of white men.”
Native: “Can we see Him?”
Answer: “No, He is a Spirit, and, altho' we cannot see Him, yet He sees everyone, and knows the thoughts and sees the actions of all men, and is good to all; but He loves good men very much, and when they die, their spirits go to live with Him.”
Native: “Where is His house for spirits?”
Answer: “Above the sun in Heaven; a beautiful and happy place.”
Native: “Shall you live there after you are dead?”
Answer: “Yes; and if you love one another, and leave off fighting and killing each other, God will send good men to you to learn you the way to that happy place.”
They answered: “Your conversation is very good, but you only joke with us; we shall all be dead before any white men come to Kiperoo. Kai ore ka ki tea, we shall never see them.”
This was such an appeal to our feelings, that we scarcely knew how or what to answer. “The harvest truly is plenteous, but the labourers are few; pray ye, therefore, the Lord of the harvest that He would send forth labourers into His harvest.”
It being now six o'clock in the evening, and the tide flowing, and very fine, I expressed my desire to proceed; they prayed us to stop till morning, but, seeing my determination, page 105 they came forward in a very noble manner, manned a canoe, gave us a large hog and three baskets of potatoes, and we took our leave and departed.
We proceeded up the river as fast as possible, and pursued our course until one o'clock in the morning, when we arrived at the path that leadeth to the Wye te Matta. The night being very fine, we made tea to refresh us, and then lay down on the bank of the river to rest. We arose at six, and the natives of Kopooah returned to their place, and we proceeded on our journey. We had now twenty miles to walk before we reached the village on the banks of the Wye te Matta, and, though we were much exhausted, yet we performed the whole distance with no other refreshment than a little water from the creeks as we passed.
In the course of this march we had some very heavy showers, and a deal of water to wade through, so that when we reached the Wye te Matta we were much fatigued and worn down. But, after a good meal and a little rest, we felt comforted and encouraged to proceed. Having procured a canoe, we again embarked, and were on the water until one in the morning, when the natives became tired and sleepy; we therefore drew to shore for refreshment and rest.
In the morning, after breakfast and prayer, we made sail for Mogoia, and arrived about two p.m.
Enackee and his people received us with the accustomed kindness; we found the boat and other things that had been left in their charge, perfectly safe. We tarried with them till ten o'clock the next day, and, if I may be allowed the expression, we were loaded with kindness. We bade them adieu on Tuesday, November 20th, about ten o'clock, with a promise to visit them again at the earliest opportunity; and, by the blessing of God, we reached Kiddee Kiddee on Thursday about noon, very much fatigued, having had to row all Wednesday night.
This is an abstract of our journey of between seven and eight hundred miles, and if you find the narrative worth reading. I shall be amply paid for writing it down.
I would observe, by way of conclusion, that, so far as I am able to judge, the principal sins to which these heathens are addicted, are: pride, lust, and cruelty. They give unbounded limits to their lusts, and the first thing a chief will offer you as a compliment, is a fine woman.page 106
When we arrived at Enackee's, he wished to furnish me with a wife during my stay. I told him I was tabbood, and also a priest, and if I committed such wickedness my God would destroy me. I further explained to him, in the best manner I was able, the wickedness of having more than one wife, and that the great God was angry with all men that had many wives. I asked him if he was not afraid of God's anger. He replied, “No; our God is not angry with us, and your God does not live in New Zealand.”
I answered: “Our God is a Spirit, and lives in New Zealand as well as Europe, and that He understands all that we are saying, and I was very much afraid that He would be angry at such bad discourse.”
He said: “If you are afraid of His anger, I will say no more.”
They are cruel and insatiable in their revenge, and war is their delight. This may account, in some measure, for their cannibalism. Although covered with lice and filth, they are as proud as Lucifer, and they look upon their cookies as mere dogs, and not of half so much value. Oh! the dreadful chains of darkness with which Satan has bound these unhappy people, “Lo, these many years!” Who has any bowels of compassion —who? In God's name, and for Christ's sake, let us shew it by endeavouring to send the glorious Gospel unto them, and earnestly praying that it may dispel the darkness from their minds, as the material sun chaseth away the shades of night.Copied and sent by Mr. Marsden,
December 4th, 1820.
SUNDAY, DECEMBER 3rd, 1820.—Divine Service in Mr. Hall's house; administered the Holy Sacrament. Afternoon, accompanied Mr. Marsden to Rangheehoo, and from thence to H.M.S. “Dromedary.” Captain Skinner had sent for me to go on board, and take the depositions of eighteen witnesses against four men—soldiers—who killed a sailor named William Aldridge. It appeared in the evidence that one man was the principal perpetrator of this horrid deed. He was beating a native, and Aldridge went to rescue the native, when he was stabbed with a bayonet in four places—which caused his death. I committed them by warrant to Captain Skinner, to be delivered up, and to take their trial at Port Jackson. This business detained me on board until Tuesday morning, when the “Dromedary” weighed her anchor, and sailed away for Port Jackson with an excellent cargo of spars. Mr. Marsden, at this time, page 107 was quite well. I took an affectionate leave of him, and returned to Kiddee Kiddee. The remainder part of this week I have been employed in the general business of the Mission.
Our settlement enjoys peace and tranquility, and the natives employed go on well.
SUNDAY, DECEMBER 10th, 1820.—Divine Service in the small house erected for the blacksmith's shop.
MONDAY, DECEMBER 11th, 1820.—Writing the whole day.
WEDNESDAY.—Work in the garden.
FRIDAY.—In the bush, looking after the cattle.
SATURDAY MORNING.–Setting up grain. Afternoon, in the study.
At this time we are on the most friendly terms with the natives of our own, and the surrounding districts, and those employed by us go on in their stations exceeding well.
SUNDAY, DECEMBER 17th, 1820.—Divine Service, morning and evening.
MONDAY, 18th DECEMBER.—Writing.
SATURDAY, DECEMBER 23rd, 1820.—The remainder of this week I have been busy in reaping the harvest. In the evening we observed a brig going into the harbour at Par Roa, and, as we were anxiously looking out for the “Active,” and, supposing it to be her, Mr. Willam Hall, Mr.King, and self, set off immediately for Par Roa, and, as we passed along, we felt confirmed in our opinion that it was the “Active.” On our arrival, which was not until after dark, we were much disappointed in finding the vessel to be the “Macquarie,” brig, bound for Taheiti. This vessel was bought at Port Jackson by Mr. Eager, for Pomarrhei, King of Taheite, who agreed to repay Mr. Eager in pork. I understood from Mr. Henry, the captain, the vessel and stores cost five thousand pounds. He further stated that it was the King's intention to trade for himself, by taking his commodities to Port Jackson and other markets, in his own vessel. We remained on board all night, as it was now growing late. Captain Henry entertained us in the kindest manner, and accommodated us to the best of his power.page 108
Monday being Christmas Day, we arose very early, and I set off for Kiddee Kiddee, and reached home about noon. In the afternoon, performed Divine Service and administered the Holy Sacrament. The natives who attended church behaved very well. I endeavoured, according to my ability, to explain to them the meaning of Christmas Day, and the great love of God in sending His dear Son to redeem us miserable sinners. Oh, may these heathens soon be brought to understand that unto them is born a Saviour Who is Christ the Lord. The remainder of the week I have been busy in the harvest field. I hope there will be a harvest of souls as well as of grain, by and by, which shall safely be gathered into the granary of the Lord.
During the last week, I have been very unkindly treated by Mr. F. Hall, a thing I never expected to experience. I had a piece of a wrapper that was round the bale of cloth brought out with us from England for use of schools. But, as there are no schools at present, part of the cloth has been disposed of in a very useful and beneficial manner, by clothing our native workmen, who are very fond of European garments.
He expressed his dissatisfaction several times among the workmen, of my having the wrapper. The wrapper was about two yards, and the value of it could not be more than 1/-, as it was nothing more than a bit of canvas. I sent for Mr. Hall and asked him what was the matter about the canvas; he replied, nothing at all, but he wished it to go into the store. I immediately sent it to his house, and replied: “I am applying it to no other purpose but the good of the settlement.”
As I have no barn, and I am obliged to thresh out of doors, I made with it, and several mats of my own, a floor to preserve the grain from being full of dirt. I further asked Mr. Hall if I was not at liberty to draw from the Society's store such things as might be necessary, to carry on such part of the labour and objects of the Society as I might have in hand. He told me I was at liberty to draw upon the store, but under certain restrictions; what those restrictions are, I am at a loss to know. However, this I do testify, that I have faithfully applied all and every part of the Society's property, as well as my own labour and time, to the temporal and eternal interests of these poor heathens. I should be glad to be informed what the Society's property is for, if it is not for the benefit of the natives.
SUNDAY, DECEMBER 31st.—Divine Service, morning and evening.page 109
MONDAY, TUESDAY and WEDNESDAY.—Busy in the harvest field with my natives.
THURSDAY, JANUARY 4th, 1821.—This day the brig “Active” arrived at Tippoonah, with supplies for the settlement.
FRIDAY, JANUARY 5th, 1821.—This morning, I set off for Ranghu Hoo after the stores, accompanied by Mr. F. Hall, and, with the assistance of our regular natives, we succeeded in getting them to Kiddee Kiddee in the course of the day.
SATURDAY, JANUARY 6th.—Looking after the stores in the morning; in the afternoon we were much alarmed by fire. One of the carpenters' sons, named Wm. Puckey, a boy of about fourteen years of age, set fire to the fern, which had like to have burned our standing wheat, the day being windy and the fern high. The fire raged with great fury, so that, with the assistance of a great many natives, we had great difficulty in saving the corn, and putting it out. Mr. F. Hall had some barley burned, but not much.
SUNDAY, JANUARY 7th, 1821.—Divine Service, morning and evening. Administered the Holy Sacrament in the morning.
MONDAY, JANUARY 8th, 1821.—We were visited to-day by Captain Graham, of the ship “Catherine,” Captain Thompson, of the “Active,” and Mr. Wm. Hall, and Mr. King. They remained with us till after dinner, and then returned.
The original in the “Hocken” Collection, was probably sent to the C.M.S., London, by Mr. Marsden, as it is minuted, Recd. July 30/21, Com. Aug. 13th/21., Ack. Aug. 20/21.
With pleasure I inform you that Capt. Thompson, by whom also you will receive this letter, brought us down a seasonable supply of stores, as we were quite out at the time of his arrival. Help often comes when hope is gone. Since your departure, we have been on the most peaceable and friendly terms with our natives, and nothing seems wanting but courage and exertion to go on in our great and glorious work. However, there are many difficulties to contend with; one is the great want of animal food, occasioned principally by the shipping. There are five ships, besides the “Active,” at this time within the harbour, and it is said there are twelve others without, and may be expected at Bay of Islands every day. I need not say to you, that like page 110 the locust in the Land of Egypt, they devour everything: on account of their dealing in muskets and powder. You are fully aware of the evil of these things, as they prevent us from obtaining supplies from the natives, and render pork and potatoes very scarce and dear.
There is no timber at present at Kiddee Kiddee, toward building me a house, and the old American house stands as you left it, save that there are a few shingles on one side. George Harrison is gone to the Coromandel; he went immediately after you left. Enclosed you have his account.
The whole of this last month, I have been very busy in the harvest field, but, from the sourness of the land, and the long continuance of the dry weather, our crops are very thin. I have reaped Mr. Shepherd's barley at Ohkula, but it is not winnowed. The wheat I intend to reap next week. I hope you will give my Christian respects to Mr. Shepherd, as I shall not have time to write to him by this conveyance.
The cattle are all doing remarkably well. Messrs. Kemp and Hall have taken to themselves the heifer of the black cow we brought down with us in the “General Gates.” She has a fine calf, and Mrs. Kemp makes butter. It is agreed upon that I shall have the mother, viz., the black cow, and calf for my use. We mean to write Mr. Pratt, as well as yourself, on this subject, and what Mr. Pratt, or you, Sir, may be pleased to charge, we shall be thankful and willing to pay. As you were pleased to write me a letter permitting any person to have a cow or two, at a certain price, accordingly, Mr. Bean, Mr. Fairburn, Mr. F. Hall, and myself, have chosen one each from among the heifers you sent per “Active” last time. Please to charge the same to our respective accounts. And now, dear Sir, permit me to say it is my earnest prayer and fervent hope that you are at this time in perfect health, and happy in the bosom of your family, and your children like olive branches round your table. May the candle of the Lord ever shine upon you, upon Mrs. Marsden, and upon your children. May the Lord be unto you as the dew unto Israel, and pour upon you the continual dew of His blessing.
I doubt not. that, long ere this, you have called your flock around the Lord's Table, again and again, and that He has met you there and made Himself “known to you, in breaking of bread,” and you have found the Lord Jesus “precious to your souls.” Although absent in body, I have been with you in spirit, beseeching the Lord to give you many souls for your hire as seals to your ministry. Please to give my sincere respects to all friends, and greet them in my name. Mrs. Butler joins with me in the sincerest love to yourself, Mrs. Marsden, and to all your family, and believe me to be,
Yours very affectionately,
To the Rev. Samuel Marsden, Parramatta.
P. S.—I hope you will have the goodness to write to me by every opportunity, and send me as many newspapers as you can conveniently spare.
TUESDAY, JANUARY 9th, 1821.—Writing in the morning; afternoon, reaping barley.page 111
I am truly sorry to see our building department go on so slow; the carpenters are very dilatory. Provisions for the natives are scarce, and, being badly looked after, they are very idle.
There is not a single log of timber at Kiddee Kiddee at this time, and Mr. Wm. Hall, whose province it is to look after this business, is very inactive, neither does he exert himself in a manner as he ought to do, altho' he is furnished with suitable means for that purpose. I acknowledge, with Rev. S. Marsden, that Mr. Wm. Hall is an industrious man. and that he is well qualified to carry on and do a great deal in his line of business. I am aware of Mr. Marsden's prejudice in favour of Mr. Hall, and am (with him) persuaded that Mr. Hall will go through thick and thin to obtain and accomplish his object; but then it is when there is a great deal of this world's goods to be obtained by it. He has a pair of natives sawing timber, (Is money the Christian's God?) for one of the whalers, although I am with my family (as it were), living out of doors, and not a single foot of timber at present toward a house for me to live in. I am obliged at last to turn carpenter for myself; I have engaged two pair of native sawyers to go into the wood about three and a half miles distant, to cut down and saw timber to build some outhouses, and fence in the spot, if I never get a house erected upon it.
You will see by my journal how I have been obliged to spend my time in New Zealand; I confess it has been spent at times in a way not very consistent or agreeable to myself as a minister; nevertheless, you must be fully aware that in a heathen land like this, without a single habitation, there is a great necessity for everyone to put his shoulder to the wheel, in order to get the machine in motion. For this purpose, I have tugged at the oar night and day; for this purpose, I have gone to the wood to fall the timber; and to the pit to dig the clay; for this end, I have been both ploughman and vinedresser, stock-keeper and herdsman; and happy should I be if, by any means, I could forward the great object of our Mission. But when I see those who are appointed to those manual exercises lag and grow careless, negligent and inactive, it very much hurts my mind and spirits.
With respect to the New Zealand language, I think I am getting on pretty well, but not so well as I could wish, or as I might if I had a place to dwell in, and thereby be more at leisure to pursue my own work. I intend to begin a regular page 112 vocabulary as soon as possible, and to follow the English language, in order to make it complete and expressive. There are things innumerable in the civil world which these natives have no name for, and, as they are introduced among them, I am of opinion they ought to retain their proper name. I think this method will facilitate, and make the translating the Holy Scriptures more easy.
I now turn from complaining to rejoicing. While I am writing these lines, I have seven natives in sight, reaping down a field of barley, which twelve months ago was over-run with fern. It looks like the dawn of civilization, and is certainly a pleasing sight; and I firmly believe their bodies and souls will improve under proper culture, as well as their country.
The remaining part of the week I have been with my natives in the harvest field.
SUNDAY, JANUARY 14th.—Divine Service, morning and evening.
MONDAY, JANUARY 15th, 1821.—This morning I set off to Kikati oh Roah, with seven natives, Messrs F. Hall, Kemp, and three carpenters, to fell timber and commence sawing for my house. After we had cleared the brushwood a little and just felled two trees, we received orders to stop from Rewah, the chief, saying that the timber was not paid for. However, we considered this wood as belonging to the Society, but we were obliged to comply, until matters could be explained. When we returned, I endeavoured to enter into a full explanation of the business. I sent for Rewah and his two brothers, and we had a long talk about the agreement for the land and timber belonging to the Society. Rewah contended that Kekataah Roah was not included in the grant, but I said it was; however, as no compact can be binding when there is no law or power to put it into execution, I was obliged to give him sundry articles before I could pacify him; an account of which you will find entered in the monthly returns.
TUESDAY, 16th.—Busy in the harvest field.
WEDNESDAY, 17th.—Taken with a bowel complaint, which lasted several days. The attack was very severe, and brought me very low, but the Lord helped me.
THURSDAY, JANUARY 18th, 1821.— Mrs. Kemp was safely delivered of a fine boy.page 113
THURSDAY, FRIDAY and SATURDAY. — Employed about the settlement, as I was very poorly, and not able to go into the field.
MONDAY, 22nd JANUARY, 1821.—This morning I set off, accompanied by Messrs. F. Hall, Bean, and Fairburn and ten natives, to cut down and bring home some wheat which was sown by Mr. Shepherd, at Ohkaotoi, a settlement about two miles from Kidee Kidee, while he was in New Zealand, and who has returned to Port Jackson with Mr. Marsden (I believe) to get a wife. New Zealand is a dreadful place for single men. I firmly believe that all the single men that have been employed by Mr. Marsden have committed fornication among the heathen!! This is also notoriously common among all sailors and captains of ships. I am exceeding glad that my son, Samuel Butler, is at Port Jackson at Mr. Marsden's, with his little flock of New Zealanders; and, altho' he is young, I hope he will marry before he comes down to New Zealand.
TUESDAY, 23rd JANUARY, 1821.—Busy in the harvest field with my natives.
WEDNESDAY, 24th JANUARY.—Went again to Kekataah Roah, accompanied by Messrs. F. Hall, Puckey, Bean and Fairburn, and ten natives, to fell timber, and commence for my house. We felled eight large trees, from seventy to ninety feet without a branch, and about four feet (or rather more) in diameter, as well as many of a lesser sort, and a great deal of underwood.
Food is very scarce, but I hope I shall get a dwelling by and by.
However painful the task, I feel it my duty to say that Mr. Wm. Hall does not come forward with that energy and zeal which he (a builder), ought to do.
THURSDAY, 25th.—In the morning, in the garden; afternoon, writing.
FRIDAY and SATURDAY.—Writing and reading.
Copied and sent to the Society by the “Coromandel,”
Jany. 5th, 1821.
SUNDAY, JANUARY 28th, 1821.—Divine Service, morning and evening.page 114
SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 3rd.—This week I have been very poorly, and able to do but little.
The carpenters this week have done but very little; two days they have been at work for themselves. Mr. Wm. Hall has not been at Kidee Kidee to do anything the last month. My farming natives go on exceeding well.
SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 4th.—Divine Service, morning and evening. Administered the Holy Sacrament.
MONDAY, FEBRUARY 5th.—Held a committee at Kidee Kidee.
TUESDAY.—Gardening. The remaining part of the week employed in the general business of the Mission. The carpenters had done very little this week. Little jobs about the settlement have occupied the whole week.
The natives employed by me in general work go on exceeding well.
On Wednesday, Rewah, the chief, and most natives in our district, set off on a war expedition toward the south part of the island.
MONDAY, FEBRUARY 12th, 1821.—This morning, Mr. F. Hall and the carpenters, with some natives, set off for Cowah Cowah to purchase timber to carry on the building department.
SATURDAY, 17th FEBRUARY, 1821.—This week I have been very poorly with a bowel complaint, and able to do but very little. My natives whom I employ in fencing, farming, etc., etc., go on very well considering; I have no one to go on with them, nor any to superintend them but myself, and I cannot always be among them. The natives in our district that are at home, are very civil to us. There has been but very little sickness among the natives, this summer, at least, as far as I am able to learn. When they are ill they will apply for tea and sugar, etc., but at the same time they will tell us that it is our God which afflicts them. I have many times endeavoured, and sometimes they seem to acquiesce in what I advance, to convince them of the absurdity of this notion. The shipping are still gleaning up all the hogs in these parts. Sailors are coming to the settlement continually, and they traverse the country far and wide for hogs.page 115
On Wednesday evening last, I felt myself under the disagreeable necessity of refusing to entertain two officers belonging to ships (“Saracen” and “Cumberland”), who were on their way to Shukeeangah after pork. They had muskets and powder with them, to pay for such things as they might meet with to suit them. Myself being very poorly, Mrs. Butler informed them that muskets and powder, for the purpose of trading with the natives, could not be suffered in our house, as it was contrary to the rules of the Society, and further, by their thus sweeping the country, they very much distressed our Mission.
Mr. King was here at dinner time on his way to Shukeeangah, to purchase (if possible), some pork for himself and Mrs. Kendall. The officers asked if Mr. King was at Kidee Kidee, or gone forward. What Mr. King had to do with them, whether anything or nothing, I am not able to say, only it appeared they expected his company.
SUNDAY, 18th FEBRUARY, 1821.—Divine Service, morning and evening.
MONDAY.—Held a committee, and received trade for a ration of pork, and trade for three months—potatoes for my family. Captain Wyer, of the ship “Rambler,” came to make an affidavit before me concerning some convicts who stowed themselves away in his ship at Van Dieman's Land, and who had run away since his arrival in New Zealand, taking with them one of the ship's boats. Wrote a letter to Captain Ker, Brend and Wyer concerning the taking away two men (sailors) from New Zealand, left by the “James,” whaler.
TUESDAY MORNING. — Went to Ohkular (Okura), accompanied by Mr. Kemp, to purchase a canoe, and to bring away three logs of timber. In the afternoon, working with my natives in putting up fencing.
WEDNESDAY, THURSDAY and FRIDAY.—Occupied in the same employment. The carpenters this week have been to Kekatooh Roah to fell timber into the creek, in order to be ready against a flood. But their general conduct is become bad, and they are proud, saucy, and idle withal. I have received a great deal of personal abuse from them this week; one of them refused to sharpen my saw, and the other gave me very insolent language without cause.
SATURDAY MORNING.—Made a stable door; afternoon, study.page 116
SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 25th, 1821.—Preached at Kidee Kidee; could not go to Ranghee Hoo on account of the weather.
MONDAY, FEBRUARY 26th.—Made a gate for my garden.
TUESDAY MORNING.— Captain Wyer, of the ship “Rambler,” came to Kidee Kidee, bringing the four runaway convicts, with intent to leave them at Kidee Kidee, but this I could by no means consent to, as I had no means of restraining their persons, or of correcting their vices. I told him that he must deliver them up to H.M. Ship the “Coromandel,” at the River Thames. Captain Wyer replied, “I am quite ignorant of the River Thames, and the place where the “Coromandel” is lying, and I do not like to risk the ship by going into a strange place for the sake of four runaway convicts.” In order to obviate this evil, I offered to accompany him to the River Thames, and pilot the ship into Coromandel Harbour. To this he agreed, and, as soon as I had packed up some linen, etc., etc., we set off for the ship “Rambler,” and got on board at dusk. The ship men weighed anchor at five o'clock on Wednesday morning, and we stood out for sea. When we reached the outer entrance of the harbour, we espied a ship in the offing, and immediately bore away for her. On coming up with her, we found her to be the “North American,” from Nantucket, commanded by Captain Wyer's brother. The Captain came on board and saluted his brother, and dined on board the “Rambler.” A calm came on in the afternoon, which lasted all night, and part of Thursday, so that we made but little progress; toward evening a strong breeze sprang up, and on Friday morning we reached the mouth of the Thames. It now came on to blow strong and directly against us, so that we were tacking and working the ship all day, but gained very little ground; night came on, and the weather looked very hazy, and there was great danger lest we should get upon rocks; the Captain, therefore, thought it prudent to stand out to sea for the night, lest we should get upon the rocks in the dark. The wind continued against us all the night, and on Saturday morning we were a good distance from land. The wind still continued against us, but we endeavoured to gain the ground we had lost by working the ship, but at three in the afternoon we were further off our mark than in the morning. The wind, however, changed at four and became fair, and we stood in for the Thames. The evening came on very dark, with mizzling rain, and the Captain would not go in. He therefore put the ship about and stood away for the Bay of page 117 Islands, and declared he would not go another step for all the convicts in the world.
Sunday morning at six we were within five league of Cape Bret; the winds were light, and our progress slow. At ten, the Captain, contrary to the advice of myself and his officers, determined to land the prisoners and leave them to their fate; accordingly, a boat was manned and armed, and Mr. Reeves, the first officer of the ship, was sent away with them to put them on shore, which he did, landing them on the beach near Cape Bret. The boat returned to the ship at half past one o'clock, at which time the ship was within the heads, and within sixteen miles of the settlement. I expressed a desire to be off, and Captain Wyer ordered a boat to be manned immediately. I bid him good-bye, and sailed away for Tippoonah, and arrived safe about half past four. We went to Mr. Hall's, and he gave the boatmen some refreshment, and they returned to the ship. I went to see all our friends at Tippoonah, and slept at Mr. Hall's.
MONDAY MORNING, MARCH 5th.—We rose early, breakfasted, and set off for Kiddee Kiddee, and arrived at noon, thankful to God for all His mercies. Afternoon, held the monthly committee, etc., etc.
TUESDAY, MARCH 6th.—Writing the whole day.
WEDNESDAY.—Set off to visit the saltman, and found him going on very well. Just before I arrived at his place, a native had brought two of the four prisoners which had been landed by Captain Wyer. The chief considered them as his property, and he was then in the very act of holding a consultation about killing them. I immediately interfered, and begged they would hear what I had to say on the subject. They replied: “They are King George's slaves and very bad men.” I told him they were so, but then they must not kill them by any means; if they did, King George would be very angry, and I was very angry at such cruelty, and moreover, that the great God would be very angry indeed with them. After a great deal of polemical discourse, their passions abated, and they agreed not to kill them; but the chief who had them in possession, said they should go back and stop at his place and work for him four months, and then he would give them up to go on board any ship that would take them. He further stated that if they worked well he would be very kind to them, and give them plenty of food. I told him I should be glad to find his words true. I then made him a present of a small page 118 tokee, and some large fish-hooks, which pleased him much. The men stood by and begged hard for their lives, and of me to do all I could for them; this I did, for my very heart ached for them. I never saw two more miserable objects in my life. I endeavoured to pass by all their iniquity in order to feel as a Christian for their misery. I counselled them to the best of my power, and advised them to go willingly with the chief, until something could be done for them. It was now evening, and they went with the chief in his canoe to remain with him. I purchased fifty bags of potatoes from them, and set off for Kiddee Kiddee, and did not get home till three in the morning, as the distance was more than twenty miles, and we had a heavy load.
THURSDAY.—Writing the whole day.
FRIDAY and SATURDAY.—Reading and writing.
Sunday morning, at seven o'clock, set off for Ranghu Hoo to preach, administer the Holy Sacrament, and to christen Mr. Wm. Hall's child.
I had a very unpleasant journey, as the wind was very strong against us, and a heavy sea going; however, I arrived before eleven o'clock; the natives worked exceeding hard, and did their utmost.
The wind continued to increase all day, and the rain in the afternoon came down in torrents. The storm continued to rage most of the night, but the morning became fair and pleasant, and after a general visit through the settlement, I returned to Kiddee Kiddee.
TUESDAY, 13th MARCH, 1821.—Went on board the “North American” to purchase a few necessaries for my family. Mr. Hall's men stole a bottle of treacle from my boat.
WEDNESDAY.—Mr. King received gunpowder from Captain Wyer, Mr. Hall ditto.
Set on four natives to prepare land for wheat.
THURSDAY.—Among the sawyers rolling timber, etc., etc. We have now four pair of sawyers at Kidee Kiddee, who are victualled at our place, together with eight other natives who look after goats, cattle, farm, etc. As Mrs. Butler has no female servant, our hands are pretty full in cooking and looking after them. We are still on exceeding good terms page 119 with the natives of our district; and the natives who are employed by us go on exceeding well.
FRIDAY.—Employed in the garden.
SATURDAY.—In the morning among sawyers; afternoon, reading.
SUNDAY, MARCH 18th.—Divine Service, morning and evening.
MONDAY, TUESDAY and WEDNESDAY.—Employed in the field with my natives in burning the fern, and preparing land for wheat.
In the evening of Wednesday, the brig “Hope,” Captain John Grimes, came into the harbour, bringing stores for the settlement, and by which my son, Samuel Butler, returned from Port Jackson to New Zealand, as also Mr. Shepherd and his wife, and John Lee.
The above brig was bound for Otaheite, having on board Messrs. Haywood and Wilson and their wives, returning to Taheiti. The brig, I understood, was to load with cocoanut oil at Taheiti, and proceed immediately to England. Mr. F. Hall and myself set off in the morning with a punt, and a crew of natives, after the stores. We completed this business in the course of the day.
SUNDAY, MARCH 25th.—Divine Service, morning and evening.
MONDAY.—Went on board the brig to bid good-bye to the Taheiti missionaries.
TUESDAY, WEDNESDAY, and THURSDAY.—Employed with my natives in fencing.
FRIDAY.—Went with a chief of Kiddee Kiddee to see his farm, and to encourage him in his cultivation.
SATURDAY.—Employed in reading and writing.
SUNDAY, APRIL 1st.—Divine Service, morning and evening; administered the Holy Sacrament.
MONDAY, APRIL 2nd.—Held a committee on general business. In the evening, a boat belonging to the “Sarah,” Captain Munroe, visited our settlement, bringing a box from England, containing a parcel for Mr. Kendall, and sundry registers from the Society, also a letter from the Revd. Josiah Pratt.page 120
TUESDAY and WEDNESDAY.—Gardening.
THURSDAY.—Writing and reading.
FRIDAY.—Building a goat shed.
SATURDAY.—Writing and reading.
In the course of this week I have been grossly insulted by Mr. Bean, one of the carpenters from Port Jackson. The native sawyers who are cutting timber for my house go on exceeding well at present; Mrs. Butler cooks for them, and I give them every encouragement in my power.
My natives who farm, garden, fence, etc., etc., go on remarkably well; they are very expert in pulling a boat, and in almost all out-door work. There is a great and manifest change for the better among all the natives of this large district since we came among them; the darkness of their night, I hope, is nearly at an end. The dawn of day is appearing, the general aspect of things, like the reddening streaks of the east, fortell the approach of the glorious Son of Righteousness to illuminate and bless this dark, benighted people. I have one observation to make respecting men that are sent from Port Jackson from time to time. It may be thought a hard saying, but it is what my conscience will not let me omit declaring, that in general they are such that ought not to be employed in any Mission, as they are far more likely to bring a curse than a blessing. Mr. Marsden has sent down——, an emancipated convict, to go with the bullocks, and farm for the settlement. He was bullock driver at Wangaroah for Captain Skinner, in getting a cargo for the “Dromedary,” and, I have no doubt, answered the purpose well; but that he has committed fornication among the natives I have had frank confession from his own mouth. I pointed out to him the dreadful evil of such conduct. What soundness can there be in the body, while so many members are corrupted? Or what concord hath Christ with Belial? With all deference to so great and good a man as Mr. Marsden, I must say that in his warmth and zeal for the good of New Zealand, he is not particular enough in his choice of instruments to carry on the great and good work. When I named those things unto him, he replied: “We cannot introduce civilization, without introducing the evils of civil life!”
My son, Samuel Butler, is busily employed among the natives, and improving them in every possible way.page 121
COPY FROM THE “HOCKEN” COLLECTION, DUNEDIN.H.M.S. “COROMANDEL,”
4th April, 1821.
The bearer of this letter, Chief Timarangi, has promised to provide a cargo of one hundred and twenty spars of the kourie timber fit for top-masts for His Majesty's navy, from ten to thirteen faths. long, and free from knots, if possible, but particularly so below six feet from the upper end of the spar.
The spars of sixty feet ought to be trimmed to eighteen inches; sixty-six-feet to nineteen inches; seventy-two feet to twenty-one inches, and seventy-eight feet to twenty-three inches square, but the chief can only be trusted to take off the bark. He says he will have them ready for trimming at Wangatoodu Harbour against the time a ship arrives at that harbour, sent by the Navy Board to take them in. He may afterwards provide some spars of less dimensions in case they may be wanted to fill up stowage—for one half of the number he is to be paid with muskets, and for the other half with axes.
The first two spars he lands at Wangatoodu should be well examined in every particular in dimensions, knots, and quality, as we have found numbers of them when nearly trimmed, partly decayed.
It would be doing the Government a service if you could spare Mr. Hall and Mr. Puckey, or either of them for a few days, to examine these spars, in order that they might point out to the chief any defect, either in size or in quality, and give him directions for his guidance in future.
When the chief informs you he has collected one fourth of the above number, and that you find that he can procure the rest with tolerable facility—have the goodness to acquaint the Honble. Commissioners of the Navy with it by the first conveyance direct to England, and also to write to them through the Sydney Post Office, besides acquainting the Governor in Chief at Sydney with the number of spars already provided by the chief Timarangi, and the prospect of his providing a whole cargo at Wangatoodu, and that I begged to request His Excellency would be pleased to forward your information to the Honble. Navy Board; but previous to your writing, it would be proper that the number of spars then collected should be well examined. Some of the kourie spars when felled, are from 2 ½ to 3 and 3 ½ feet thick. Off such spars the chief might be trusted to trim 2, 3, and 4 inches, which would make them swim much lighter, the outside sap being the worst and heaviest part of the timber. Mr. Hall, on seeing the spars, would be able to describe how much the chief might venture to trim off, according to their size. I feel authorised in writing so full on this subject, having been instructed by the Navy Board to ask every assistance from the missionaries, that it was in their power to afford.
I have been grieviously annoyed and retarded in procuring the timber by the aversion of the natives (on whose ground the timber grew) to work. My men are very much fagged, dragging the timber in cold, frosty rivers. We have been out of bread since 20th of March; it is likely I must go to Port Jackson for a supply of provisions. The page 122 natives will only sell pigs for muskets and powder, which I am determined they shall not get; they say, if not, we can get the muskets and powder for masts from the missionaries at the Bay of Islands. I shall begin to load about the middle of this month, and sail about the latter end of May. I hope you will insist on Timorang's (Te Morenga) exerting himself to procure the timber, otherwise tell him King George will be very angry, and that he will not get the sword and cock't hat, I had promised him. Adieu.
I am, Sir,
Your most obedt.,
To Mr. Butler,
Chief Missionary, Bay of Islands.
SUNDAY, APRIL 8th.—Divine Service, morning and evening.
MONDAY, 9th, 1821.—Mr. Hill, Mr. Samuel Butler, and self went into the bush with our natives to collect our cattle, and to examine them. We had the satisfaction of seeing them looking exceeding well.
TUESDAY, 10th APRIL, 1821.—I set out, accompanied by Mr. F. Hall, on a journey to Wyemattee. As nearly twelve months had passed since I had last visited this large native settlement, I felt desirous of seeing them again, especially at the present moment, as it is now their harvest, in order to satisfy myself of the quantity of sweet potatoes and Indian corn raised by them this year. Moreover, as Wyemattee and Kiddee Kiddee are settlements belonging to one tribe, I feel it an imperative duty to go round this large district as often as I have opportunity, to encourage them to habits of industry, to point out the advantages thereof, and to instruct them in every possible way. Nothing tends more to conciliate their affections, and to gain their confidence and esteem than such visits. We had five natives with us to carry our necessaries and food, trade, etc., etc. We arrived in the evening, and were received with every possible mark of respect; poor creatures, they seemed over-rejoiced to see us. We informed them we were hungry, and they immediately began to prepare some sweet potatoes, while we boiled some water for tea. We had some cold pork with us, and we sat down and made a hearty supper. Afterwards, we had a great deal of conversation with them about their farms, their families, the goodness of God in giving them such an abundant crop of potatoes, the evils of war, and the blessings of peace, and at the same time page 123 we endeavoured (if possible) to sow one grain of spiritual instruction. It being late, and ourselves weary, we informed them we wished to lie down. They remained very silent during prayers, and we then wrapped ourselves up in our greatcoats and laid ourselves down on some bullrushes to rest. A great many natives sat round about us, who kept talking about us and our country people, more than half the night. I slept soundly until daylight, when I awoke. I looked round me, and beholding the natives, two or three in one place, and four or five in another, I thought they very much resembled a flock of sheep in the field. We breakfasted between six and seven o'clock, had prayers, and proceeded to visit the whole settlement. At our departure from our resting place we made them a present of some fish-hooks, and they went to their work. We had a most fatiguing day, and we did not get through the whole settlement until the going down of the sun. But we had the gratification of finding a much larger quantity of Indian corn and sweet potatoes than was given last year. Everywhere we were received with equal kindness, and everyone seemed eager to shake hands with us, and to accommodate us with the best he had. We distributed a few fish-hooks among them at every place we came to. It being evening, and we being weary and almost stunned with their shouting and noise, we began to look for a place of retirement; we determined, therefore, to proceed on our journey about three miles into a wood in order to be alone.
We arrived at our intended lodging a little after dark, and having kindled a fire, we proceeded to cook our supper, which consisted of two fine pigeons which we had shot in passing through a wood in the morning, and sweet potatoes; these, with some tea, afforded us a very refreshing meal. Our natives gathered plenty of fern tops for our bed, and after supper and prayer we laid ourselves down in this place to rest. Our natives collected a large quantity of wood and made a great fire, in order to keep off the night air. As rest is sweet to the weary man, so labour softens every bed, and on a few fern tops in the wood, I experienced, the truth of the above remark, for I enjoyed a most refreshing night's rest. In the morning we arose at daylight, got our breakfast, and then proceeded on our way to Kiddee Kiddee, where we arrived in safety about six in the evening, thankful for all our mercies.
FRIDAY.—Have done but very little.
SATURDAY.—Employed in reading the whole day.page 124
SUNDAY, APRIL 15th, 1821.—Divine Service, morning and evening. Several natives attended and behaved with great propriety.
MONDAY.—In the field with my natives, preparing land for wheat.
TUESDAY, APRIL 17th.—Writing in the morning; in afternoon, in the garden.
THURSDAY, 19th APRIL, 1821.—In the morning preparing the foundations of an outhouse. Afternoon, reading. We have been visited to-day by a chief named Shomackee; he has a settlement about seven miles down the river toward the mouth of the harbour. He has lately returned from a long war expedition toward the South Cape of New Zealand. The name of the place where he has been is Eenhamattehou. He has brought from thence forty slaves. He had several in his canoe when he called to see us. They were all fine men and women, but their countenances seemed much cast down.
GOOD FRIDAY, APRIL 20th, 1821.—Divine Service, morning and evening. Administered the Holy Sacrament.
SATURDAY, APRIL 21st.—Reading.
SUNDAY, APRIL 22nd.—Easter Day. Divine Service, morning and evening; administered the Holy Sacrament.
MONDAY, APRIL 23rd, 1821.—Writing the whole day. The natives at work at the farm.
Copied up to this present date.
WEDNESDAY, 24th APRIL, 1821.—At work in the field among my natives; sowed half an acre of wheat.
THURSDAY.—Burning fern root from off the land.
FRIDAY.—Among my natives in the field. Sowed an acre and half of wheat. On Wednesday, Samuel and Mr. Puckey returned; they could not proceed on account of the badness of the weather.
I have at this time twelve cultivators, eight sawyers, three hewers of wood and drawers of water, etc., etc. Altho' I have a great deal to put up with from their innumerable queries and their excessive talkativeness, yet I have reason to be abundantly satisfied with them as poor heathens. I endeavour to bear with them, and talk to, and answer them, until very often I am quite hoarse. My general name among them is father, and Mrs. Butler, mother. I have often, yea daily do pray, that I may become so in a spiritual sense indeed and in truth.page 127
SATURDAY.—Employed in reading and writing.
SUNDAY, 29th APRIL.—Divine Service, morning and evening; many natives attended.
MONDAY, 30th APRIL.—Very wet, writing the whole day.
TUESDAY, MAY 1st.—In the field with my natives; sowed an acre of wheat.
THURSDAY.—Made a present of a gallon of wheat to Moodiwye, chief of Shukiangah (Hokianga); he expressed a desire to sow wheat at his place. On Monday last Mr. Francis Hall charged me for seven pounds of soap, 9/4. This is the first soap that I have drawn since I left England, and I think it a great shame to be charged or stinted to a bit of soap for my use, when I am working in field and bush to the utmost of my strength, and often beyond it. The sugar and tea sent out with us was taken from us by Mr. Marsden on our arrival at New Zealand, and rationed out at two ounces of tea and one pound of sugar per week each person; the soap I would not part from, and it lasted up to this date. While I write these lines, I am quite unwell from over-exertion and heat. On Tuesday morning last, my son, Samuel Butler, and two other Europeans set off for the Kowah Kowah with a crew of natives to fetch timber for my house; the weather was very boisterous and wet, nevertheless, they succeeded in getting a good raft by Saturday.
FRIDAY.—In the field with my natives preparing land for wheat. I have now seven native applicants for seed wheat, and I have promised to supply them all.
My natives go on exceeding well, and I hope and trust, through the tender mercy of our God, the day is not far off when they shall improve in spiritual knowledge, and enquire after spiritual things. May the Lord hasten the wished-for period.
SATURDAY, MAY 5th, 1821.—Reading the whole day.
SUNDAY, MAY 6th.—Preached at Rangehoo, and administered the Holy Sacrament. Miss Susannah Kendall attended the holy ordinance for the first time. I had a good deal of previous conversation with her on the subject. I put several questions to her, and felt satisfied with the answers given; therefore, at her earnest request, I thought it my duty to admit page 128 her. As the Lord hath given her the will, I pray that He may give her the power to devote herself wholly to His blessed service.
MONDAY.—Towing a raft of timber from the Mutoo Roa to Kiddee Kiddee; reached home at six o'clock p.m., got some refreshment, and held a committee on general business.
TUESDAY, the 8th, 1821.—Received the portion of trade allotted to me to procure from the natives—pork and potatoes for my family for twelve weeks. This day the carpenters presented a paper of which the following is a copy:
CHURCH MISSIONARY SETTLEMENT,
May 8th, 1821.
To the Committee,
We, the undersigned, finding ourselves aggrieved under various circumstances with respect to our situation as artificers in this settlement, have been called upon to fill offices in no way connected with our agreement with the agent of this Mission.
Finding that extra expenses attend the extra exertions we are called upon to attend, by reason of which our salaries are rendered insufficient for the support of our families without a due remuneration from the Society.
As the Society is in possession of their agreement with the Rev. S. Marsden, I need not make any comment on that head. With respect to the other statements contained in it, they are false and groundless. True it is that several times (as you will observe from my journal) they have been called upon to go into the woods to fell timber and to tow timber to the settlement; and once or twice they have been called upon to assist in landing stores, but then it has always happened that they have had things of their own to bring on shore. When they were felling timber at Kikatuah Roah, they never set off in a morning until after breakfast, and were always at home by five o'clock or before; and at such times they were allowed a double ration of tea and sugar, and the same when called upon to tow timber. I gave each of them four yards of coarse grey cloth belonging to the Society to make them trousers to put on, when called upon to go into the bush. In short, they have had nearly a double ration of every sort since their arrival in New Zealand. The whole of their conduct has been page 129 bad, for instead of applying their talents and abilities to the utmost of their power in the Society's service, they have been idle, negligent, and saucy, and Mr. Wm. Hall, whose place it is to look after them, is very seldom here. One of them is (when he can get liquor) as great a sot as ever lived, and Mr. Marsden knew this when he agreed with him. I was with Mr. Marsden when he went to talk with him about coming down, and he thus addressed him: “Mr. X, I am come to take you with me to New Zealand, for if you stop at Parramatta you will be in prison again ere another month.” I thought this wonderful! ! Nevertheless I considered it my duty to be silent at that time. Of course we did not listen to them for one moment; moreover, I pointed out to them the evils of their conduct, and informed them that without an alteration for the better on their parts they would be sent back to Port Jackson by the first ship.
The Society would do well, and forward the interests of the Mission here, by sending good carpenters from England forthwith. In the afternoon, my son and John Lee, with a boat's crew of natives set off for Mongonewee to seek after shingle wood to cover my house, but the foundation is not yet laid.
WEDNESDAY AND THURSDAY. — Myself and Mr. Kemp, with another crew of natives, went into the bush to their assistance. Shingle wood is difficult to be obtained at New Zealand. Shingles might be sent from Port Jackson (for the present at least) for less than half the expense they cost in New Zealand, and the charge would be nothing when the “Active” is coming down.
FRIDAY, 11th.—At work at the farm with my natives.
SATURDAY MORNING.—At the farm. Afternoon, study.
SUNDAY, 13th.—Divine Service, morning and evening.
MONDAY, TUESDAY AND WEDNESDAY.—Sowing and chipping in wheat.
TUESDAY.—Mrs. Bean was brought to bed. God has blessed her with a fine girl. Mrs. Butler attended her, and the mother and infant are likely to do well.
THURSDAY AND FRIDAY.—Burning fern at the farm.
SUNDAY.—Divine Service, morning and evening.page 130
MONDAY, MAY 21st, 1821.—Working at the farm with my natives.
TUESDAY.—Mr. Samuel Butler, Mr. Bean, and myself, and a boat's crew of natives went to the woods, about seven miles down the river, to seek after shingle wood; we found five trees, felled them, and cut certain lengths of each, but only two would do for shingles. The day came on rainy, and we got very wet, as the woods were almost like being in a brook; we caught slight colds, but God is all-sufficient.
WEDNESDAY, 23rd MAY, 1821.—Sowing oats and barley.
THURSDAY.—Assisting my natives to chip in wheat I had sown the day before.
FRIDAY, the 25th.—Sowing and chipping in wheat. Our great chief, Tarrier, came to our settlement yesterday from the Wye Mattee; he dined at my place yesterday, and breakfasted with us this morning. He was very importunate for an adze, some fish-hooks, a file, a knife, and a blanket. I made him a present of a file, an adze, and some fish-hooks, and informed him I had neither a knife or blanket to spare at present. He was quite pleased and said he would not fight the white people any more. Tarrier was once accounted the greatest savage in New Zealand. He is still a savage, but nothing like what he was when I first came to New Zealand. It is reported that Tarrier killed three slaves and ate them at Wye Mattee last week; I am inclined to think it is true, from the information I received. This is a dreadful custom prevalent among all tribes in New Zealand, when cookies commit theft, and I understand that they had been stealing his sweet potatoes, which I supposed was the cause of his killing them.
SATURDAY, 26th MAY, 1821.—Much rain fell in the course of the night, and it continued to rain hard until midday. I went, as soon as daylight appeared, with my farmers to open the trenches to let off the water from the wheat lands. This was an important business for the preservation of the wheat, but we got a good soaking in performing it. This morning, Charles Shunghu, son of Shunghu Heeka, head chief of Kiddee Kiddee, was brought hither on a litter, having a few days ago been dreadfully burnt by the explosion of gunpowder. I heard of the accident some days before, and sent him some refreshments, and things to dress him. Messrs. F. Hall, James Kemp, Samuel Butler and self went to see him, and page 131 dressed his wounds; his leg, thigh, and arm were burnt very badly, but I have no doubt but that he will do well. I gave him some bread and rice to boil for food, and Mr. Kemp sent him some tea. Thus we act, and by kindness and attention to their bodily wants endeavour to convince them that we really love their souls.
Afternoon, reading, etc., etc.
During the last fortnight I have employed and victualled seventeen men and boys in cultivating land. The labour of burning off, breaking up, and cleaning the land is very great. However, I have six acres of wheat, one of oats, and one of barley in the ground, which by the blessing of God I hope will bring a plentiful crop. The natives around us, and especially those we employ, are become very sensible of the comforts of civil life, and are daily crying out for European clothes, and are beginning to enquire after, and to cry out for all the blessings of civil life. And shall they cry in vain because they are poor and wretched and have nothing? God forbid! While there is a servant of Christ in our land who has the power, I am sure he will help them. The sawyers and farmers employed by me are now clothed in European garments, which they have earned by their industry; and the desire which they manifest to be clean on the Sabbath Day pleases me much. I have hitherto supplied them weekly with soap out of our own little stock, to wash their clothes, but now it is expended, and this day the sawyers appeared dissatisfied because I had none to give them; they said they did not like to be seen on the Sabbath Day with a dirty shirt.
I this day spoke to Mr. F. Hall about soap to wash their clothes from the store; I told him that I was persuaded the Society would gladly furnish one pound of soap per week between eight sawyers. It cannot be supposed that in their present state of poverty and distress they can pay for every bit of soap, or every fish-hook they receive, especially when we require each pair of sawyers to saw four logs of timber for an axe each, four for a blanket, four for a shirt, etc., etc. If they were to work in them, they would wear out one article before they earned another, but they work principally in their native attire, as I cannot get European garments for them.
Mr. Hall said he had no authority from Mr. Marsden to furnish the sawyers with soap, and that he had strict orders from him to charge every individual's private account with every article of every sort and kind, little or much, drawn by them over and above their ration.page 132
There are many obstructions and stumbling blocks of this sort continually thrown in my way, in endeavouring to do good to the poor heathen of New Zealand. Rather than have my path thus marred at every step, and hedged up at every turning, I would sooner be out of the Mission altogether.
Whenever the natives are aggrieved about anything, they immediately run to me to tell of their trouble; I sympathise with them, and relieve all their wants as far as possible; with respect to my native farmers, the case will be far otherwise very soon. The return of the crops, by the blessing of the Almighty, will more than pay every expense, and the value of the surplus it is my intention shall be laid out for the good of those natives, who by the sweat of their brow have earned it. My farmers and household natives appear particularly attached to me; this I account for my being continually with them, and furnishing them, as far as I am able, with every sort of information which I think will be useful to them. May the Lord Jesus bless every humble endeavour to glorify His holy Name, and to administer comfort to the destitute.
SUNDAY, MAY 27th, 1821.—Divine Service, morning and evening.
MONDAY.—Sowing and chipping in barley.
TUESDAY MORNING.—Visited Charles Shunghu, in company with Mr. F. Hall; we found him much better, dressed his wounds, gave him some necessaries, and returned. The remaining part of the day in the field with my natives, burning fern root, etc., etc.
WEDNESDAY AND THURSDAY.—Sowing and chipping in oats. I have now six acres of wheat, two of oats, and two of barley, well put in, and I hope it will produce a good crop. Blessed be God! He reserveth to us the appointed weeks of harvest. Two chiefs from Shukeangah are at our settlement at this time, with a quantity of hogs; but all their cry is powder, powder, muskets, muskets! This being the case, I suppose we shall get but few of them. Another season I hope to be enabled to find my own.
Thursday night it rained very hard the whole of the night, so that on Friday morning the river was much swollen. I arose at daylight and proposed to the carpenters that all hands should be summoned to go to Kekatooah Roah to put the fallen timber into the water. The consent was general, and after breakfast all the Europeans (except Mr. Shepherd) and a page 133 large party of natives were on the move to the wood. The rain continued to fall very fast, and we had to wade up to our knees, and in some places up to our middles, to get to the wood. When we arrived the natives were very active in launching the logs; and in about an hour the whole, forty in number, were in the water. But now we had the most difficult part of the business to perform, viz., going down by the river side to keep them from stopping by the way. There is such an amazing quantity of brushwood and overhanging trees by the river side which renders it very difficult to get timber along. The fern thro' which we had to pass, in order to follow the course of the river, was very high, and above our heads in places, and that together with the rain falling, made it resemble being in a river the whole day. The natives, with very manly courage, threw off every article of clothing, and rushed into the rapid current and released the logs from their lodgments; indeed one part or other of them was in the river from morning until night. We succeeded in getting thirty-two over a large waterfall, ninety-three feet high, about two miles from the wood; here many of them remained at the bottom in a little bay which is formed by the fall; and the eddy was so strong that it was with the utmost difficulty we got them from under the fall. Mr. F. Hall was once in the water over head, and narrowly escaped the loss of his life. However, we got all the logs out, except two. Night came on and we were obliged to go home. We took some spirits and water twice in the day, which was all the refreshment we had, and I need not say that all of us never more stood in need of refreshment and comfort than when we arrived at our habitation. Two logs reached Kiddee Kiddee in the course of the day.
SATURDAY MORNING.—The weather became very fine and waters abated. I arose early, and sent one of my natives up the river to look after the logs; he returned saying there were thirty within a short distance. After breakfast I sent away the carpenters, John Lee, my son, and a party of natives to endeavour to get them home, but they did not succeed as the waters were gone down. They must therefore remain until the next fresh that cometh into the river. I think it will take £200 to bear the expense of clearing all obstacles, and then the settlement at Kidee Kidee would never more be at a loss for timber for every purpose.
At ten o'clock I set off in my boat for Ranghee Hoo, and arrived at one p.m. I dined with Mr. Wm. Hall, after which I went to Mrs. Kendall's, and sowed in her garden three beds page 134 of onions, one of peas, one of beans, and set out one hundred and fifty cabbage plants which I had brought down with me out of my garden; Master Kendall followed me, and covered the rows; and afterwards I drank tea with Mrs. Kendall and family, performed family worship, and retired to Mr. Hall's to sleep.
SUNDAY MORNING, JUNE 3rd.—I awoke before day-light, found my throat very sore, and a great stiffness in my limbs. I began to be fearful I should not be able to perform Divine Service, but the Lord was better to me than my fears, for after I had been up several hours, my stiffness, which arose from cold, began to wear off a little, and the soreness of my throat abated. Performed Divine Service twice, and administered the Holy Sacrament in the morning. Several natives attended and behaved very well. I remained with our friends at their place until Tuesday morning, when I left them all in good health and returned to Kidee Kidee.
The remaining part of the week I have been employed in the garden and field with my natives.
SUNDAY, JUNE 10th, 1821.—Whitsunday. I preached from 68th Psalm: “Thou has ascended up on high,” etc., etc. After sermon I administered the Holy Sacrament, and I trust the Holy Ghost was with us, indeed, as every heart seemed to rejoice in His holy comfort. This certainly has been the most comfortable Sabbath, and I have enjoyed more of the Lord's presence in it than in any other since I have been in New Zealand. Many natives attended and behaved exceeding well.
MONDAY, JUNE 11th, 1821.—Very wet; reading and writing the whole day. In the evening the river was so much swollen by the rain that we got down eight logs of timber by ten o'clock.
TUESDAY MORNING.—John Lee, myself, and a party of natives went again up the river, and succeeded in getting down nine more logs by noon. In the afternoon held a committee on general business.
WEDNESDAY.—At work in my garden.
THURSDAY, FRIDAY AND SATURDAY.—Began a new store-house for my potatoes, corn, etc., etc.page 135
SUNDAY, 17th JUNE, 1821.—Divine Service, morning and evening. My natives all attended dressed in a new suit of clothes, as well as many others, and they all behaved exceeding well. In the afternoon our great chief, Tarrear, came to our place, and a party with him; they had come thus far on their journey to Shukeangah on a war expedition; or to settle some grievances that existed between them. I am sorry to say that on his departure in the evening, he reinforced his numbers by taking away six of the sawyers who were cutting timber for my house, the foundation of which is not yet laid.
MONDAY, 18th JUNE.—At work at my store-house.
TUESDAY.—Clearing land for oats, etc., etc.
WEDNESDAY AND THURSDAY.—At work at my storehouse; buying of timber; getting it on shore, etc., etc.
FRIDAY.—Very wet; writing the whole day.
SATURDAY.—In the morning among my natives in the field; afternoon, reading.
SUNDAY, JUNE 24th, 1821.—Divine Service, morning and evening.
MONDAY AND TUESDAY.—At work in the field with my natives. The sawyers are returned without fighting, and the dispute settled between Tarrear and the chief Shukeangah.
WEDNESDAY.—Morning, in the field; afternoon, study.
THURSDAY.—Morning, in the field with my natives; afternoon, study.
FRIDAY.—Morning, in the garden; afternoon, study.
SATURDAY.—Morning in the field; at noon we set out for Ranghu Hoo, in order to preach and administer the Holy Sacrament on the Sabbath Day, and at two I dined with Mr. Hall; visited all the friends, natives, etc., etc.
My native farmers and sawyers go on exceeding well, and I am in hope of getting a house in about eight months' time.
Tarrear and his family have been at the settlement this week; he breakfasted and dined with me two days, and part of his family. He behaved himself very well, and professes great friendship. I made him a present of some flannel for his children to wear, and several combs and two knives, and a few fish-hooks. He went away rejoicing.page 136
Yesterday, Towhee, a chief of Ranghu Hoo, his wife, and brother, came to pay me a visit, and brought me two hogs, for which I gave him two axes and a spade. He has a farm at Shukeangah, and has been living at that place for some time past, and was thus far on his return to Ranghu Hoo. He stated that all was quiet when he left. There have been some disputes, but they had been settled without appealing to arms. We have enjoyed peace and tranquillity at the settlement for a long time, and we lay ourselves down to rest at night in the midst of savages with as much composure as if we were in a civilized country and surrounded with guards. Wonderful! ! God is all-sufficient. He will shew us greater things than these.
SUNDAY, JULY 1st, 1821.—Divine Service, morning and evening; administered the Holy Sacrament. The friends at Ranghu Hoo are all in good health, and I spent a very pleasant Sabbath among them. The Lord is pleased to remember us in our low estate; and as the rain cometh down from Heaven and watereth the barren desert, making rocks bring forth and desolation smile, even so the Holy Spirit (sometimes of His infinite mercy), cometh down into our souls, like the dew upon the herbs; then our exhausted strength is renewed; then our dying graces revive as with new life; then hope's pale lamp which before seemed just going out, is rekindled by the love which is shed abroad in our hearts, and burns brighter than before; so that we are enabled to rejoice as well as hope in His mercy; the Lord is my hope, my joy, my strength, and my great salvation.
MONDAY, JULY 2nd.—Returned to Kiddee Kiddee, and held a committee in the evening on general business.
TUESDAY AND WEDNESDAY.—In the field with my natives preparing land for oats.
THURSDAY AND FRIDAY.—Sowing oats.
Yesterday our chief Reewah and his brother came to see me; Reewah has a very bad cold; they both supped and breakfasted with us. I then made Reewah a present of a pair of blankets to keep him warm, and also of some tea and sugar as other little comforts.
SATURDAY, JULY 7th, 1821.—In the field in the morning; in the afternoon, study.
SUNDAY, JULY 8th, 1821.—Divine Service, morning and evening.page 137
MONDAY, TUESDAY, WEDNESDAY.—Gardening, etc., etc.
THURSDAY, JULY 12th.—This morning we heard of Mr. Kendall's arrival at Ranghu Hoo in the ship “Westmorland;” also of Shunghee, Wyekatoo, all in good health. Mr. F. Hall, myself and Samuel Butler, and Mr. Kemp, set off immediately to see Mr. K., and to welcome his return. It must fill his heart with joy and gratitude to that gracious God who has watched over and protected his family during his absence, and Who has permitted them all to meet together again in health and comfort, and also to see his brethren enjoying the same inestimable blessing in a barbarous and savage land. We spent the evening together in conversation, prayer and praise. The next day we were all busily employed among the stores. Early in the morning my son and Mr. Kendall set off for Kiddee Kiddee to bring down the punt to take our stores to Kiddee Kiddee; we were all at work till twelve at night in loading our stores, etc. etc. We sent away the punt with a crew of natives and two Europeans, to take care of the property. We then retired to rest for a few hours, and after being refreshed, we arose and made all speed for Kiddee Kiddee, and arrived about two p.m., and got them all safely housed in the afternoon.
SUNDAY, JULY 15th, 1821.—Divine Service, morning and evening.
MONDAY AND TUESDAY.—Busy unpacking stores, etc., etc.
This morning, between eight and nine,—(the convict sent down by Mr. Marsden, who has been at my place since his arrival, because no one else would take charge of him), fell into a most violent rage, cursing and swearing, and would have if he had not been prevented, cruelly beaten a native lad, a servant of mine. Mrs. Butler sprang between them in order to save the lad from such wanton cruelty, and believe she would have been knocked down had it not been for James Boyle, the saltman, who had just arrived with some salt for the settlement. He had been out drinking rum with some sailors belonging to the “Sarah,” who were at the settlement at this time.
At this time I was reaching down some hymn books and the Bible for evening worship; the circumstance struck me with horror; I went to speak to him, and he caught hold of my jacket, and I thought he would have struck me. I there- page 138 fore made off to ask Mr. Kemp and Mr. F. Hall to come in, and if possible to quiet him. When I got into Mr. Kemp's house, I was so much overcome that I sat down and cried. Mr. Hall and Mr. Kemp went in, and, with the assistance of my son, restored peace, and the wretch decamped to my barn to sleep. We retired to rest, but I scarce had any sleep. In the morning, as soon as daylight appeared, Mrs. B. arose, and——came into the yard, vociferating and swearing as in over night. I ordered him to quit my place instantly; this command he reluctantly complied with, after giving me a little more of his foul mouth. The whole of this uproar arose from my lad telling him he was houranghee (drunk), which, alas! was too true! ! The day before he had two gallons of rum served him from the store, out of some spirits sent down by Mr. Marsden to be divided among the settlers.
To be coupled with such men on missionary labours, how shocking! ! ! Thieves, drunkards, swearers, blasphemers, fornicators, etc., are, and have been employed in the Society's service ever since there has been a settlement in New Zealand! ! If such characters are to be allowed to remain or are at all employed in this Mission, I hope to have an order to return with my family to England by the first ship.
WEDNESDAY.—Gardening in the morning; in the afternoon, writing.
THURSDAY AND FRIDAY.—Gardening. In the afternoon of Friday I sowed two acres of land with the grass seed sent out by the Society with Mr. Kendall. They had all been opened at Port Jackson and part of each taken out; this I do not like.
SATURDAY MORNING.—Making a raspberry bed. Afternoon, study.
SUNDAY, the 22nd.—A very stormy day. Divine Service, morning and evening.
MONDAY, 23rd.—I planted some trees, various; sowed some ash seeds, acorns, hawthorn berries, hazelnuts, walnuts, trefoil, taru, beans, various cherry stones, plum stones, etc., etc.
In the evening Mr. Kendall visited us, and supped and slept at our place.
TUESDAY MORNING.—After breakfast and prayers, took a walk round the farm; returned and had some conver- page 139 sation with the brethren about forwarding the objects of the Mission, and by what means, etc., etc. After dinner Mr. Kendall and Mr. Wm. Hall returned to Rangehoo.
WEDNESDAY, the 25th.—Garden in the morning; afternoon, writing.
THURSDAY.—Gardening in the morning; afternoon, writing.
FRIDAY.—Planting potatoes in the morning; afternoon, writing. This afternoon my native foreman, named Twywangeh, was most grossly insulted, and wantonly speared through the elbow, and also thro' the thigh. He was at work in my garden, and I had just left him to get my dinner. It took place within the enclosure where my house is now building. I had not left the place many minutes, and was then getting my dinner. As soon as the news was brought to me, I repaired to the spot; when I arrived the fray was just over, and I saw my man ready to faint for loss of blood. The man who had committed this rash act marched off, but he had not gone far ere he met a lad belonging to me with a basket of potatoes on his back; he seized the potatoes instantly, and walked off. On seeing this, my son and two natives ran after him and took it from him. Mr. F. Hall, myself, Samuel Butler, and some of my other natives then ascended the hill behind the settlement, and found two other baskets which he and his friends had taken from my people as they were bringing them home. We succeeded in getting away one basket, but not without some resistance; we were then obliged to go on the road to prevent others from sharing the same fate. I do not like contending with them, even to save my own property, but we are obliged to be very firm, for if these natives find that you are in any measure afraid of them, or will suffer your property to be taken away with impunity, they will take everything from you, and will actually tread you under foot. It requires great wisdom to know how to act or deal with them. I endeavour to join fortiter in modo with suaviter in re. Little men and cowards they greatly dislike, and such a one, while they continue in their present state, can possess but very little influence, and his usefulness also must necessarily be much hindered thereby; very little men and cripples also are held in the greatest contempt by these natives. After we had secured as many of page 140 the potatoes as possible, we went to the river side at a short distance and found some natives washing the blood from the wounded man.
At this moment I turned my head and saw two native women endeavouring to get away part of the potatoes out of the passage from Mrs. Butler, who was standing sentinel over them. Mrs. Butler did what she could to save them. I saw one of them strike Mrs. Butler twice; I ran as fast as possible to her assistance, and pushed them away, and enquired why they did thus. One woman replied, “Sir, I did not touch the potatoes, nor Mrs. Butler, and I begged this woman to let them alone. I am one who is employed by the native you sent to purchase potatoes, to bring them to your house; but there is one basket which we brought for food by the way, and I wished them to remain until you had brought in poor Tywongah, and then you would pay me, and I should take away the basket at the same time.” I then asked her where was the remainder of my potatoes, and she answered: “They were stolen from us by the way.” I then asked what the other woman had to do with them. She replied, “Nothing at all; she is not engaged to bring potatoes, and she is a very bad woman for striking mother, or even touching the potatoes, but she wished to be doing something.” (“Mother” is Mrs. Butler's general name among the natives of our district.) I spoke to the other woman, who all the time was making a terrible noise, and found she would be too much for me to cope with; I therefore made off into the house. These are trying scenes. No one can tell what it is to dwell among unrestrained savages but those who live with them.
We then proceeded to dress the wounded man, and offered him every comfort in our power. On examining his wounds, I began to fear they would prove mortal, as they were made with a bayonet fastened to the end of a spear.
After this business was completed, I began to enquire of him the cause of so desperate an act. He said “Somebody who owes me a grudge has spread a false report of me, saying that I defiled the man's wife, which thing is most untrue.” I have since found the above statement to be correct. As far as I can trace the subject, it came to pass under the following circumstances:—About a week ago I pressed upon my foreman to get forward with all speed with potato ground which was preparing for seed, and in my absence Tywongah had called this man a lazy fellow, for not going on with his work as he page 141 ought, and this he considered as a great hardship. I said to him: “What Tywongah has said of you is true; you have not wrought the last fortnight to please me.” On hearing this, nothing would serve him but that he must be paid immediately. I told him I did not wish to part with him; but, seeing him determined to go, I paid him, and he started.
Not being able to be revenged on Tywongah in any other way, he spread a false report of him, and brought this man down upon Tywongah; and he certainly would have killed him if Tywongah had not been a man of superior activity. I have since seen the woman and spoken to her upon the subject; she declared the report to be false. (I would remark it is common in New Zealand for women to confess, and even relate such things, altho' done by mutual consent.)
This man, named Tywongah, is now, and has been ever since our arrival in New Zealand, the most active and zealous among all the New Zealanders in assisting and working for the Europeans. He has stood by us back and edge, by night and day. If any New Zealander ever deserved a present from the Society, he is certainly the man. I engaged him soon after our arrival, and he has never left us, but has been continually with us; and he has faithfully laboured and endeavoured to forward our objects to the best of his power. He is much respected by all the Europeans on account of his good temper and general attachment. He is a man of quick discernment, and learns everything very fast. Agriculture, such as breaking up land, burning off, laying it out, trenching, etc., etc., he is particularly fond of, and possesses great knowledge for the time he has been in practice of farming in general. He can reap, mow, and thresh, etc. I began to learn him to sow, dibble, and drill grain this seed time, and ere these lines reach you, D.V., I have no doubt but that he will be a complete farmer. He possesses also a tolerable knowledge of gardening, such as forming beds, sowing small seeds, setting out plants, drilling peas, beans, planting potatoes, dressing strawberry beds, etc., etc. Indeed, he has been my right hand man both in the field and in the garden; he has not only wrought himself, but has been the means of bringing his friends and acquaintances into the field to labour.
All the Europeans that have visited the settlement have expressed their surprise at seeing so much farming, gardening, and fencing, which have been done in so short a time and under such peculiar circumstances; but this man has acted like a flywheel in the machine, which puts every other cog in motion. page 142 Likewise in the falling of timber, or in towing the same to the settlement for the building department, he stands the very first.
I pay him an axe a month for his labour, besides which I furnish him with European garments, but he has no hat; many of our natives wish to have hats, as well as every other sort of European clothing. Happy day, when all the natives shall be clothed in European garments, and act towards each other upon the principles of the Gospel.
SATURDAY, 28th JULY.—Gardening in the morning; afternoon, study. I am very thankful to state that Tywongah's wounds this morning look remarkably healthy; he has very little fever upon him, and I hope and trust he will do well.
SUNDAY, 29th, 1821. — Divine Service, morning and evening.
MONDAY AND TUESDAY.—Gardening, planting potatoes.
WEDNESDAY.—Dressing a bed of hops. I have fourteen hills which look exceedingly fine, as the plants are very strong. I brought a single root from Port Jackson, and planted the whole fourteen hills from it last spring; and I gathered a small sprinkling of fine hops from them in the season. I hope this year they will produce a good full crop.
THURSDAY.—Writing, etc., etc.
FRIDAY AND SATURDAY.—Reading and writing.
SUNDAY, AUGUST 8th, 1821.—Divine Service, morning and evening, and administered the Holy Sacrament.
MONDAY.—Held a committee on general business.
TUESDAY. — Gardening in the morning; afternoon, writing.
WEDNESDAY AND THURSDAY. — Gardening and writing.
On Wednesday morning, my son, Samuel Butler, and Mr. Shepherd set off for Wyekaddee to purchase timber for the purposes of carrying on the building of my house, outhouses, etc. Wyekaddee is about twenty-five miles from Kiddee Kiddee. They arrived in the evening, and purchased nine logs of a chief named Tahee Tabba, for which they paid two axes, one page 143 adze, one hatchet, two hoes, three plane irons. After this business was completed, they proceeded to another place a little further on, taking the chief with them, to look at some more timber.
At this place they purchased four logs for two hatchets, one axe, and one plane iron. It was now about seven o'clock in the evening. They got them into the water, and fastened them together by moonlight, and proceeded to a small village belonging to the chief, and reached there about eleven o'clock, and intended to stop until the return of the tide. They got some refreshment and lay down to rest; but they had not lain down more than half an hour ere two women came in a canoe to fetch away the chief, saying Mr. Hall had arrived at his other place and was taking away the timber belonging to Mr. Butler and Mr. Shepherd. Tahee Tabba on hearing this, set off with the natives in the canoe. Mr. Butler and Mr. Shepherd remained some time longer in order to get a little rest.
About two in the morning they arose, and proceeded with the four logs to the other place, in order to raft the timber together and to start with the tide. When they came they found all the timber in the water and nearly rafted by the natives belonging to Mr. Hall.
On seeing Mr. Hall they informed him that the logs which he had taken belonged to them. (This he well knew, as he used every base and unfair means of inducing the chief to sell it over again.) Mr. Shepherd said, “Sir, you are doing very wrong.” Mr. Samuel Butler said, “Sir, I think it a great and scandalous shame that you should take away the timber which we have paid for, knowing it to be ours.” He answered, “I have bought it also, and shall take it.”
They then asked him if he would be answerable for the trade which they had paid. Mr. Samuel Butler said, “Sir, I have paid for that timber, and shall expect to have it.” Mr. Wm. Hall answered, “I will give all the axes out of the Society's store, rather than you shall have it.” Mr. Shepherd and Mr. Butler then said, “Sir, we could not have supposed that you would have been guilty of so base an act as this, in taking away the timber which we had paid for, for the ship ‘Westmorland,’ unless we had this proof, and at a time when the settlement is distressed for timber! ! !”
The natives said to Mr. Shepherd and Mr. Butler, in the presence of Mr. Hall, that Mr. Hall, on his arrival, asked to see the trade which they had received for payment, and on page 144 being shown the articles, he threw them about the beach and said they were no good, and further, that he would give them much better and more in number for the timber than Mr. Butler and Mr. Shepherd had done. However, the chief, an ignorant heathen, was sensible enough to know the injustice and iniquity of the thing, and declared that Mr. W. Hall should not take the timber away at last, only that Mr. Hall had a musket of his at his house to repair; on that account he could say nothing about it. Mr. Hall took the timber away to Ranghee Hoo accordingly; and Mr. Butler and Mr. Shepherd were obliged to return with four logs instead of thirteen. Wonderful pretty, indeed! ! ! The above is a copy from the mouths of Mr. Butler and Mr. Shepherd—verbatim.
Is this the Mr. Hall, the carpenter appointed by the Society to carry on the Society's work in the building department, and who is required not only to give his advice, but to labour with his own hand in order to forward the buildings wanted?
Yes! this is the man and the Christian.
Mr. Shepherd and Mr. Butler said that Mr. Hall endeavoured to justify his conduct by saying he had spoken for it some time ago, and that he had marked it. Both these assertions proved to be false, as no mark was to be found on the timber, and the people denied it to his face. I would grant very gladly, if possible, that Mr. Hall was incapable of uttering such falsehoods, and that he had spoken for the timber. But for whom did he bespeak it? I should think for the Society certainly, for the purpose of carrying on the building. Was it for the “Westmorland?” She had not arrived. Here I would observe that Mr. Hall says he has an order from Mr. Marsden to purchase timber for the “Westmorland,” the ship which brought down Mr. Kendall, and which is chartered by Mr. Marsden to go to Tahiti for pork, etc., etc., and which ship is to call for the timber at the Bay of Islands on her return. But I am persuaded that Mr. Marsden does not mean that Mr. Hall should purchase timber for the “Westmorland,” to be sent to Port Jackson market, to the detriment of an infant settlement, and the distress of any of the Society's servants while being out of doors.
It certainly was Mr. Hall's duty, and an imperative one, as carpenter and builder, to have forwarded their objects by assisting them in the purchase of timber; as they might well be said to be doing that work and service which should more especially devolve upon him. If he had exerted himself to page 145 supply the settlement with timber, according to the means he possessed, it would have precluded the necessity of their going after it, which in the clearest manner proves his guilt. Mr. Hall has never exerted himself to procure timber for the settlement, but has left me with all that work and service. He scarcely ever comes to Kiddee Kiddee except on committee days. He has never laid a line upon a single log of timber, or taken the least trouble about the sawyers, or exerted himself in any other way. Such work and labour is entered under his name at our committees for the sake of order, and not for the sake of his having performed any part of the work. Here I quit this disagreeable subject, and hope it will be buried in oblivion, because the Lord liveth, and blessed be my strong helper, and glory be to God of my salvation.
Mr. Shepherd arrived about eight p.m. on Thursday evening, bringing the news of their success, and that my son was then about two miles down the river, and could get no further on account of wind and tide being against them. I immediately manned two canoes and went down to his assistance, and we reached home about twelve or rather later, with the four logs from Wyecaddee, and two others which they picked up by the way in the harbour, which had floated down from the wood in the flood, and belonging to Kiddee Kiddee.
FRIDAY AND SATURDAY.—Reading and writing, etc., etc. The natives are very quiet and friendly to us, upon the whole, and I believe our footing among them is firm and sure, as any little disturbance that takes place with a single native or so is not to be carried beyond the thing itself. Our crops, our cattle, our gardens look exceedingly well, and are in a thriving state. This desert begins to bud, and ere long we have reason to hope it will “rejoice and blossom as the rose.”
My native farmers are still going on exceeding well.
SUNDAY.—Divine Service, morning and evening.
MONDAY, AUGUST 13th, 1821.—This morning I set off for the timber ground, accompanied by Mr. F. Hall, my son, Mr. S. Butler, John Lee, and four natives. We arrived at Tohee Tabba's place about two o'clock, but he was not at home. Here we stopped and got our dinner, but in a little time Tohee Tabba's son, a fine lad, and a friend of his came to us and asked if we wanted timber; we told them we did. My son went with them across the small bay we were in, and purchased three logs. They then returned and informed me they had more timber at another place about six miles off; we page 146 immediately set off, and purchased twelve more. While the natives were rafting these, there came to us a chief, saying he had some timber to dispose of at his place a little distance off. We therefore agreed with the natives to take the timber we had now bought to Tohee Tabba's place, as we intended to collect all we could, and start from thence with our general raft for home, it being the nearest and best place for that purpose. We then set off with the chief who came to us, and when we reached his place it was about eight o'clock in the evening. The moon shone bright, and we saw the timber lying on the bank, and examined it as far as we could. We told the chief we were hungry, and wanted to cook some supper; and in the morning we would purchase the timber.
We then made a hut, and fire, and boiled water for tea. After supper and prayer, we lay down by the fire side to rest. We rose up at four in the morning, and prepared our breakfast, after which, and prayer, daylight came on, and we proceeded to the purchase of timber. We bought twelve logs at this place, and got them into the water as fast as possible, in order to go down with the tide; one of our logs sank, and we were obliged to leave it behind. We started about seven, and got down to Tohee Tabba's place about eleven; we found our other timber which we had purchased on the preceding evening, and brought down by the natives all safe. We fastened our timber, and satisfied the natives for bringing down the other raft, and then set off for the upper part of Wyecaddee.
We now had a fair wind, and in order to save time, we got some refreshment as we sailed along.
We visited several settlements, at one of which we saw Tehiterro in his native garb. When we arrived, he was working some potato ground on the hill behind the village. We did not see him at work on account of a small wood being situate between the village and his cultivation. We shook hands with him, had some little conversation with him, gave him some fish-hooks, and departed.
We then went to a village about two miles farther on, and here we purchased eight logs, and by the time we got them all rafted it was night. We then set off across the country into a wood, to cook our supper, etc., etc. This we did in order to be as much by ourselves as possible, for one or other are seen to be teasing you all night.
We struck a light with a fowling piece, made our hut as usual with the boat sail, dressed our food, etc., etc., and page 147 although the ground was very wet, on account of the rain that fell in heavy showers during the day, yet we made out pretty well, as we kept a good fire all night. In the morning we arose, got breakfast very early, and set off to the village, and took away our timber. As we passed down the river we called on Tieterree, and saw his wife and child. Tieterree looks in a most pitiable condition; I can truly say I felt for him from my heart, both in a temporal and spiritual sense.
We left them, and passed on down the river about four miles to another settlement. Here we wanted to go on shore after some more timber, and as the tide was running down, we thought it best to let go the raft which we had, and go on with the tide. We went on shore and bought seven logs, but as the tide had been going down some time, we had a hard job to get them into the water, and by the time we had done this business it was low water mark. While we were rafting the timber, a very heavy squall of wind and rain set in up the river, and took our other floating raft to the other side; and, as the river is two miles wide at this place, we had some difficulty in finding it. However, after rowing about more than two hours, we found it all safe on the other beach, but the towing rope was gone from the raft; we enquired after it of the natives, but one and all denied any knowledge of it. I offered several rewards but to no purpose. I at last offered a hoe for it. As soon as they heard that, one of them ran after it, and in about ten minutes returned, bringing the rope with him. I paid him the hoe, and endeavoured to express my abhorrence of their telling so many lies about the rope, and we departed.
It was now eventide, and we had to row against the tide. We got away about a mile into a little cove to get some refreshment. We soon made a good fire and dressed some pork and potatoes, and with some tea likewise, we made a hearty dinner. We rested ourselves until about nine o'clock, when John Lee and the natives went on the other side of the river and brought the small raft from thence, and we joined the two together, and set off for Tohee Tabba's to the remainder of our timber.
We arrived about one in the morning, and, after fastening our timber, we proceeded to make a fire as usual and get some refreshment and rest. In the morning we arose, got our breakfast, and prepared to raft the whole of our timber together, and, if possible, to take it all with us. We completed this business ready to start with the tide. We set out with upwards of forty logs after our own whale boat, and with page 148 very hard pulling we made as much progress as we could expect (say about a mile an hour), but, after we had got about three miles along the bay, we had to pass the mouth of the river Wyetanghee; here the tide set out against us, and with the utmost difficulty we passed it. We were upwards of four hours getting about a mile and a half, and it was not until after midnight that we reached a place of shelter.
We had only a small piece of raw bacon each on a bit of bread during the day, and a little water from the rock. About two in the morning we got into a little cove; we were all so completely tired and wet with the rain that we scarcely knew how to cook supper, but the natives behaved extremely well. I struck a light and we got a fire, and some bacon fried, and our clothes hung up to dry. My son lay down in his blanket and fell asleep, and his blue jacket fell off the stick into the fire and was burnt to ashes.
After refreshment, we lay down on the beach under a tree by the fireside to rest. We only stopped four hours on account of the tide, and when I got up I could scarcely stand for some time; my limbs seemed all to be numbed.
We made a start between five and six, but we were all like horses with sore shoulders until we got warm; we rowed until noon, when the tide turned. We then anchored our timber and went on shore to cook a few potatoes and three pigeons which we shot. This was all the food we had left. After this we lay down by the fireside until the return of the tide. We set off rather before the turn of the tide, as the wind set in in our favour for the first time with the timber. It continued to blow pretty strong with a heavy shower of rain for about an hour, when it gradually died away. We had not proceeded far ere we met a canoe with a supply of food sent by Mrs. Butler; we were all cheered at this, and after taking a little, we tugged hard for home, and reached Kiddee Kiddee about eleven o'clock on Friday night with the whole of our raft, thankful for all our mercies. We never, perhaps, stood more in need of refreshment and rest.
SATURDAY, 18th AUGUST, 1821.—In the morning took a walk round the farm to look at the wheat and other grain, and exercise my stiffened limbs. Afternoon, reading. About six o'clock in the evening, as Mr. Puckey was buying some sweet potatoes, the same infamous woman which struck Mrs. Butler, interfered with him and entered the yard, and would take them away by force and take them to Mr. Bean. I did page 149 not see the transaction, as I was on the loft reading, but I heard the noise, and my son, who saw the whole affair, said she behaved in a most shameful manner. She was going to fall upon his wife, and he pushed her away, and she up with a billet of wood and struck him twice, and threw mud in his face. She then went away and informed Shunghee (who is her relation) and all her friends, that during Shunghee's absence about six months ago, Mr. Puckey's daughter, a little girl of eleven years of age, said to his daughter, Tyeke, that when Shunghee came back she would cut his head off and put it in the iron pot. This hussy succeeded in stirring up the natives, who are glad of any pretence in order to seize on our property. I came down about ten o'clock, and my lad, Tyheehone, said to me, “Father, the natives are coming to steal all Mr. Puckey's things.” I told him to hold his tongue, for I did not believe him. He still persisted in the truth of what he said. I asked him why. He said for the bad langauge Mr. Puckey's daughter had used concerning Shunghee. I said, if she had said such things, she did not mean to, it was not possible; that she could not have any ill-will towards Mr. Shunghee; she was but a child, and had not seen Mr. Shunghee many times, and could not know what she was saying at the time; and Mr. Puckey, if he knew, would correct her very seriously for such things. Mr. Puckey came to me, to consult what he had best do. I told him I did not think they would do any such thing; however, he wished to put a few things up in the store loft, for fear such a thing should take place, to which I readily consented. I also enquired of him what his girl had done, and he related the case as follows: That about six months ago, his daughter and the daughter of Shunghee, who is a grown woman, and lives with Mrs. Kemp as servant, were at play on the timber about the sawpits. They sat down on the timber and began to talk about their parents, a thing very customary with children. Shunghee's daughter said that Puckey was nothing more than a slave, and Puckey's daughter said her father was as great a man as Shunghee; the other replied: “Shunghee on his return will kill your father and eat him;” and Puckey's girl said in return: “I will cut your father's head off, and cook it in the iron pot,” and so on. This certainly could amount to nothing more than a child's prate, who often talks without any reasoning. However, the consequences (through the aforesaid infamous woman) became very alarming. The natives, as I have observed, are glad of any pretext to seize on our property; they came in the middle of the night and took away out of Puckey's small yard nine page 150 store hogs, one male, one female goat, also one goat, one hog, and three fowls from Messrs. Bean and Fairburn.
On Sunday morning about five o'clock, Puckey called me, saying in a mournful tone: “The natives have broken into my kitchen.” I jumped out of bed, and ran out of doors almost naked, and I saw the natives in Mr. Puckey's yard, and many in the kitchen, using dreadful language, and taking everything they could lay their hands on. The settlement was thrown in the greatest consternation, and indeed we did not know to what length they would go. Mr. Puckey, his wife and children, were crying out for their hoes. My place being next to theirs, and only a small fence between, I expected them into my place every instant. However, Reewah, who is as great a chief as Shunghee, and who has always stood our friend, came running down from his place naked, with his gun in his hand, and in he rushed like a lion and bundled them out of the place in a few minutes; but they nevertheless got away many articles, as planes, files, saws, hammers, stock and kits, axes, hoes, razors, shoes, wearing apparel, lamps, tea pots, one iron pot, two blankets, one rug.
Puckey's son sleeps in the kitchen, as they have only one small room besides. When the natives broke in, one of them caught hold of him by the hair of his head, and said he would cut off his head if he spoke a word. As soon as he was loosed, in he ran to his father, trembling in every limb. At length peace was restored, and we thought all was over; but my mind was so much hurt that it was with the utmost difficulty, when the time came, that I performed Divine Service; and not my mind alone, but also everyone in the settlement. We began service as usual at eleven o'clock, and Mr. Puckey and his son attended. We had not begun many minutes ere Puckey was called out; the natives were taking away his chickens out of his yard. He went and begged of them not to take them, but they paid no attention; they took them all away.
Divine Service being ended about one o'clock, and the friends scarcely got indoors, when down comes another party, and over the fence into Puckey's yard. I knew several of them, and begged of them with all my might to desist; but all in a moment they broke open the door and into the house they went. Puckey's dinner was just set on the table, and they took all the food, broke all the plates and dishes, took away the knives and forks, spoons, a looking-glass, two bottles, and one canister of tea, table cloth, towel, three mats, then about one page 151 bag of flour, one of wheat; took away more tools, sundry curiosities, etc., etc.
Some of my natives went and acquainted Rewah, who came quite naked, and several others with him, as soon as possible; he was dreadfully angry, and I was afraid the natives would now fight among themselves, but they were soon cleared from Puckey's place by Rewah and his friends without blows. He said to them all that Shunghee ought to be ashamed; he had been to England and was loaded with kindness, and he had returned to fight and destroy the white people. One of the natives heard that Puckey was struck, and he ran and killed a hog of Shunghee's as a recompense; and as Kehee Kehee's (Kohi Kohi) party (Shunghee's relations) and friends were plundering Puckey's place, Rewah's brother went and took away Keehee Keehee's potatoes as an utoo (payment), My son's German flute was at Mr. Puckey's, and that went with the rest of the things. We all stood looking on, but durst not speak a word. I had hard work to keep Mrs. Butler from fainting away.
These are trying scenes indeed; this is something of a missionary's life among cannibals.
Rewah and his friends now determined to stop and guard the place; he therefore loaded his musket, and told them they might look out if they came any more. We now got a mouthful of dinner with fear and trembling, and I brought the distressed family into my place, and gave them some with us. Afterwards I sent for Shunghee, and advised Mr. Puckey to go and beg of him to come and let us know what all this cruel outrage meant. I walked backwards and forwards along by my garden fence until I saw Shunghee go into Mr. Puckey's place, and several other chiefs, and I followed them. I sat down among them, and began to enquire of Mr. Shunghee why they acted thus. He replied: “My people heard that Mr. Puckey's girl said very bad language concerning me, and they have taken the matter up, and acted thus without my consent.” I told him I was extremely sorry that they should be so cruel on account of the conversation of a child, who did not know the evil, and who did not, nor could she mean any evil to him. “Moreover,” I said, “if you wanted any satisfaction on that account, had you come and made it known, we would have made you any recompense in our power; you have looked very shy at us ever since you came from England. What is the reason? If you do not like us to live at your place, we will go away.”page 152
I could scarcely get a word from him further than he did not wish them to fight us, and he would do what he could to stop any further proceedings. I then asked him if any other of his friends were then likely to come upon us. He said he could not tell, but he would do all he could to prevent them. This will show you how little power a chief has over his people in New Zealand. I further said to him that I had been called his slave many times, and that by his relations—men and women, yet I was not angry with them. He said he knew that. I then asked why he did not, on hearing the report, come to Mr. Puckey immediately, and he would have corrected his daughter severely in order to deter her from doing the like again. He answered: “I am not angry with Mr. Puckey or his child.” I then left them, in order, by the help of the blessed Jesus, to prepare myself, as much as the agitation of my mind would permit, for evening service.
Shunghee's son, a fine youth, came to evening service, and desired to stop at my place all night. This I agreed to, and the night passed away in tranquillity; only Rewah and his friend fired off their muskets several times in the night, to let the natives know he was prepared for them. I slept pretty well, being worn down in body and mind.
MONDAY, AUGUST 20th, 1821.—Everything peaceable and quiet, but many natives at the settlement. Rewah and his friends remain on the look-out; myself, writing the whole day.
TUESDAY, AUGUST 21st, 1821. — This morning Mr. Shunghee came to my place by seven o'clock; and he and his son, who had remained with us, breakfasted with me and my family. I thought this a favourable opportunity, and begged of him to tell me a little about England. He began by relating the number of muskets and soldiers, and shops, and people belonging to King George; how he was received by him, and the present he made him. He said King George told him that he never wrote to say the New Zealanders should not have powder and muskets. He then told me about his journey to Cambridge, and his seeing the college and many other fine things; he said he saw but very little timber, or ground for cultivation, as the country was full of people. He then informed me about his seeing the Tower, and the wild beasts, but the elephant is the only beast that seems to have struck him with any degree of surprise. He then told me how kindly Mr. Mortlock and Mr. Wood treated him; “They are,” said he, “very good men.” I then asked him if Mr. Pratt was not a good man, and he said, “No, Mr. Pratt is a bad man.” I then page 153 asked him about Mr. Bickersteth; and he replied, “He is a bad man also; and, indeed, all the people at Missionary House.” I asked wherein Mr. Pratt or Bickersteth and the other gentlemen were bad. He said they all looked upon him as a poor man, and did not treat him as a great chief, and give him plenty powder and muskets; neither did they do for him as they had done for Tooi (Tui) and Teeterree (Teteri), and when they spoke to him they did not speak kindly; and moreover, they made bad talk about him behind his back. I asked him who informed him about the bad talk, and he replied, “Mr. Kendall.” He said many more ridiculous things not fit to mention.
In the course of the day I again suffered severely in mind, from the natives treading upon two acres of oats, and entering into my garden without my permission, and using me very roughly into the bargain. Afterwards several of them came into my place, desiring and demanding food. Mrs. B. gave them all that was dressed, and that would not satisfy them. She was obliged to put on another iron pot to satisfy their desires. I told them they had almost killed me and Mrs. Butler and my family, in doing so many bad things without any fault of mine, or any fault of the Europeans. They said it was very good for us to give them liberty to come into our places when they pleased, and to eat; and if we did not like that, they should come in by force at all times.
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 22nd, 1821.—This morning I set on another pair of sawyers, in order to get forward with my house as fast as possible, being quite wearied and tried in living after the wretched manner which I have since I have been in New Zealand.
This morning I have been very ill used by Mr. F. Hall and Mr. Kemp, in their engaging my servants to go on their business, without so much as asking me a question on the subject. Moreover, Mr. F. Hall used wicked and reproachful words, and was exceeding angry without any cause. “Oh, that I had wings like a dove, then would I flee away and be at rest.”
Afternoon, gardening and looking after my people.
All things appear to be quiet and settled this evening. This afternoon an aged chief, and a relation of Shunghee, came to see him. Shunghee brought him to me, and I made him a present of a hoe, a knife, some fish-hooks, and a pair of scissors. I also made Pomarree, chief of Kororarekah, a present of a hoe, and Mr. Hall gave one to his son.page 154
The natives are all preparing to go to war to the River Thames; several battles have been fought since the departure of the “Coromandel,” between the people of the Bay of Islands and the people of the River Thames; and several chiefs belonging to the Bay of Islands have been killed.
Shunghee, having now returned in safety from England with a great quantity of guns and powder, they are collecting all the fern they can, and, if possible, they will cut off all the people of Mogoheeha, men, women, and children. Shunghee is very angry in his mind that we do not part with muskets and powder. He says that Mr. Kendall has promised to supply him, and to sell him plenty of muskets and powder.
Shunghee's conduct towards us at Kiddee Kiddee since his return has been very bad, and some part of it remains as a mystery to all. He told Rewah the other day in a private conversation between themselves, that I was a very bad man who stopped the disposal of muskets and powder. He also is displeased with the people at Port Jackson. He told even me that they had robbed him of his watch at Sydney, but that he got it again, and the man got a severe flogging. He also is much displeased with Mr. Marsden; he says Mr. Marsden behaved ill to him while at Sydney. He asked Mr. Marsden for several things, but he denied him, and would not give him so much as an axe.
Things at this moment appear very awkward and adverse, and I do not know what to do for the best. We must wait the Lord's pleasure; endeavour to trust when we cannot trace, and patiently wait for the salvation of God.
THURSDAY, AUGUST 23rd.—This morning Mr. Shunghee, Mr. Rewah, Mr. Tirranah, and four of their children came to my place for breakfast. Shunghee's son is now with us regularly night and day. We wish to do all we can to please them, and prove to them in every possible way that we wish to do them good.
After breakfast and prayer they all sat down, and we had some very friendly chat for about half an hour.
[When one considers the attitude of Hongi towards the Mission, and his, at times, tacit consent to their being plundered by his followers, at other times, secret active assistance in their depredations, one is constrained to ask where else the Mission could have been more favourably situated? and the answer returns, practically nowhere else. That part of New Zealand, which is now Wellington, was subject to marauding influences. Hawkes Bay was no more fortunate. The Thames, while keenly sympathetic to the missionaries, was soon subjected to the bloodthirsty Hongi. Whangaroa had the “Boyd” massacre to its credit, and later on the breaking up of the Wesleyans. No! under the conqueror's wings there was a semblance of protection, although somewhat precarious.
Hongi was too cunning not to realize the value of trade with the Europeans, as also did Te Rauparaha, who went to the Cook Strait for the same purpose. Many of the acts of intimidation seem to have been pure Maori “bluff,” terrifying to the wives, children, and settlers themselves; but generally ending in gifts of utility to Hongi or Rewa for acting as peacemakers.
Meanwhile, the seeds of civilization were slowly germinating, cleaner habits, a more plentiful diet, the value of medicine, care of the sick, the very children growing up under less pugnacious influences; and above all the ravages of war and its attendant griefs and sorrows—the whole culminating in that short period of fighting in which warrior after warrior followed Hongi to that bourne where trials of war are over, and troubles are at rest. The civilizing (?) influence of powder and muskets had rendered nugatory the strength and bravery of a Toa.
Yate (page 175), sums up the position (though unconsciously) while extolling the virtues of Hongi and his constant protection of the Keri Keri Mission—” From the date of his death the members of the Keri Keri ceased to bar their gates, and bolt their doors, whenever a strange party arrived; they seemed to enjoy a peace and security to which previously they had been strangers.]