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The Farthest Promised Land — English Villagers, New Zealand Immigrants of the 1870s

15 The Quality of the Immigrants

15 The Quality of the Immigrants

1 J. B. Condliffe, New Zealand in the Making, London, 1930, p.34. (Condliffe's work has been chosen merely for convenience; it is not suggested that he should bear any particular responsibility for this view.)

2 Ibid., p.145

3 Ibid., p.373

4 AJHR 1875, D-8

5 AJHR 1875, D-4B

6 PDNZ, 15 October 1875, 19, pp.473–4

7 Ibid., pp.476–7

8 Ibid., p.471

9 Cited B. Thomas, Migration and Economic Growth, Cambridge, 2nd ed., 1973, p.61

10 Lyttelton Times, 14 October 1874, citing the London Times

11 See e.g. W. Hasbach, A History of the English Agricultural Labourer, London, 1908, p.294; Green, English Agricultural Labourer, p.65

12 Arch, Life, p.254. See also p.219

13 Lyttelton Times, 14 October 1874, p.3

14 PPGB 1868–69, 13, p.588

15 There is scope for much further research on the quality of the English immigrants, interpreting the census data in the light of a knowledge of local social and economic circumstances. Tracing immigrants to their village of origin is, however, a very onerous task. For what can be done using New Zealand archival data alone, see John Morris, ‘The Assisted Immigrants to New Zealand, 1871–79: A Statistical Study’, unpublished MA thesis, University of Auckland. Morris took a random sample of one in thirty of the ‘Vogel’ immigrants, and subjected his sample to a careful statistical analysis, with some interesting and useful results. As we have indicated, inadequacies in the ar chival material limit its usefulness when used alone.

16 For a newspaper editorial typical of many on this topic, see Rangitikei Advocate, 25 May 1876

17 Campbell, “The Black 'Eighties”, p.70

18 Ibid., pp.74–5

19 Journal of the House of Representatives, 21 October 1884. The paper was laid upon the table by cabinet member John Ballance.

page 384

20 Canterbury's increase of 437 Australian-born between the 1871 and 1874 census represented three-eighths of the New Zealand increase. Canterbury must also have received several hundred non-Australian-born from Australia over these years.

21 Calculated from the detailed returns printed in AJHR for these years.

22 Canterbury's Scottish-born also declined in this period (by 2.62 per cent) while the New Zealand figure rose (by 3.90 per cent). Canterbury's New Zealand-born rose by 29.67 percent, compared with a New Zealand figure of 34.37 per cent.

23 AJHR 1872, E-1, pp.17–18;AJHR 1881, F-1, pp.1, 12