Ngā Tohuwhenua Mai Te Rangi: A New Zealand Archeology in Aerial Photographs
Pukemaire, a pā on the high river terrace at Tikitiki, Waiapu River valley
The long, ploughed-out ditch and bank in the foreground, marking a slight rise in level inwards to the defended area, may have been the bank of a former course of the river. The wider area of the pā within the defensive perimeter has been ploughed many times and little surface detail shows. Although pre-European in origin, the pā was occupied by Pai Mārire adherents and was attacked by Ngāti Porou kūpapa and colonial forces in 1865.
Towards the church, the interior of the pā (behind the third ditch) has been left intact and shows the distinctive outlines of raised-rim kūmara storage pits. The view is to the north, and the church (St Mary's) is about 35 m long. The flat surfaces were the river bed during the Pleistocene (ice ages).