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Ngā Tohuwhenua Mai Te Rangi: A New Zealand Archeology in Aerial Photographs

Crop marks and soil marks

Crop marks and soil marks

Crop marks and soil marks

Left. Soil marks of a ploughed-out pā on the Waikohu River, near Pūhā, East Coast. The pā lies on the left of the river on the opposite bank to the prominent house, centre. There were two ditches and banks, described by Elsdon Best in The Pa Maori as 'bulky earthworks'. These enclosed the point formed by the sinous stream marked by willows (coming in from the left) and the main Waikohu River. From top to bottom the pattern is: light grey line, subsoil of the outer lip of the ditch; broad light grey line, subsoil fill of the main bank; and dark patches, the topsoil and probable ovens protected from the plough by the main bank. The river is 30 m across.

Right. Crop marks outline the double ditch and bank of a pā on the high terrace at Nukutaurua, Māhia Peninsula. Fragments of the ditches and banks only survive outside of the fenceline running up and down right of centre on the photograph. Traces of the outer ditch lie at right angles to the large surviving fragment, and can be seen as a dark line enclosing the point. A pattern of later ploughing can also be detected.