Ngā Tohuwhenua Mai Te Rangi: A New Zealand Archeology in Aerial Photographs
Continuity in Māori settlement: Mangatoatoa marae near Kihikihi
The urupā with modern gravestones is within the bounds of a high ditch and bank, the defences of a pā, which may be up to 400 years old. The pā itself was sited on a point created by the steep banks of the Puniu River, its course now infested with willows. The urupā and pā can be seen to be part of the marae complex. The point in the foreground was an excellent tactical position controlling the river and its terrace margins, and the pā may have been used as late as the Waikato campaigns of 1864. The view is taken looking to the south-west.